- Established as a first step towards a pan-Arab state, the UAR was created when a group of political and military leaders in Syria proposed a merger of the state to Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. Pan-Arab sentiment was very strong in Syria, and Nasser was a popular hero-figure throughout the Arab world following the Suez War of 1956.
- As an answer to the republican United Arab Republics, the king of Jordan and the king of Iraq (both cousins) join their respective country into a confederation called the Arab Federation.
- An anti-monarchist coup d'état is averted in Iraq.
- Following a coup in Yemen that deposed the king, this country enters the UAR.
- Libya enters the UAR.
- Tunisia enters the UAR.
- Algeria attacks Tunisia, leading to the Maghrebin War.
- Morocco enters the war against Algeria, and Algeria is defeated.
- Morocco and Algeria join the UAR.