Alternate History

Timeline (Angleterre)

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Welcome to the timeline page of Angleterre. Here you can explore what happened in the Angleterre world after the Point of Divergence in 1216 AD

Detailed Timeline

  • 1215 - 1299
  • 1300 - 1399
  • 1400 - 1499
  • 1500 - 1599
  • 1600 - 1699
  • 1700 - 1799
  • 1800 - 1899
  • 1900 - 1999
  • 2000 - 2015

Abridged Timeline

1215 - 1299


  • 1215
    • King John of England makes an oath to Pope Innocent III as a crusader to gain his support.
    • Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: after the long Battle of Zhongdu, Genghis Khan's Mongols captured and torched Beijing.
    • King John of England is forced by rebellious barons of England at Runnymede to put the Great Seal of the Realm on a set of articles confirming their rights and those of the towns and Church, and confirming the status of trial by jury, which on June 19 is confirmed as Magna Carta.
    • King John of England rejects the Magna Carta, leading to the Barons' War.
    • Pope Innocent III declares the Magna Carta invalid.
    • The Fourth Council of the Lateran gathers in Rome under Pope Innocent III, who adopts the style "Vicar of Christ".
    • Alexander II of Scotland invades northern England in the support of the Baron's War. 
    • Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor, is excommunicated and forced to abdicate as Emperor and King of Burgundy, replaced by Frederick II.
    • The Dominican Order is founded.
  • 1216
    • The English army sacks Berwick-on-Tweed and raids southern Scotland.
    • Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in support of the barons, landing in Thanet. Entering London without opposition, he is proclaimed, but not crowned, King of England at St. Paul's Cathedral.
    • Dresden receives city rights.
    • Pope Honorius III succeeds Pope Innocent III as the 177th pope.
    • Pope Honorius III officially approves the Order of Preachers (the Dominican Order).
  • 1217
    • The Fifth Crusade reaches the Holy Land.
    • Peter II of Courtenay is crowned emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople at Rome, by Pope Honorius III.
    • Occupying French forces are victorious at the Battle of Lincoln against English royal troops led by William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, survivors forced to flee south.
    • King Henry I of Castile dies aged thirteen from the fall of a roof tile in Palencia, an event which his regent, Álvaro Núñez de Lara, attempts to conceal. Henry's sister Berengaria succeeds to the throne.
    • Haakon Haakonsson becomes King Haakon IV of Norway following the death of Inge II and largely ends the civil war era in Norway, reigning until 1263.
    • First Barons' War: In the Battle of Sandwich in the English Channel, French naval forces destroy the last remaining English forces. 
    • Ferdinand becomes King of Castile on abdication of his mother Berengaria.
    • The Barons' War in England ends with the Battle of London and the Battle of Sandwhich off the coast of Kent. King John decides to gather what his left of his kingdom and flees into exile in Ireland. 
    • After the Barons' War, Scotland gains control of Northern England and it's titles. 
    • The Livonian Brothers of the Sword and allied Livs and Letts defeat the Estonian army in the Battle of St. Matthew's Day and kill their leader Lembitu.
    • In the Kingdom of Castile, former regent Álvaro Núñez de Lara is captured and forced to relinquish all his castles.
    • Stefan Nemanjić is elevated to be first King of the Serbian lands by Pope Honorius III and crowned by Stefan's brother, Archimandrite Sava, in Žiča.
  • 1218
    • The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt.
    • Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade.
    • Loius is officially crowned as King of England in the same St. Pauls cathedral where he was proclaimed King. 
    • The Kara-Khitan Khanate is destroyed by Genghis Khan's Mongolian cavalry.
    • Genghis Khan's Mongols, under the leadership of his eldest son Jochi, conduct a second campaign against the Kyrgyz.
    • Genghis Khan proposes to the Khwarazm shah of Persia that he accept Mongol overlordship and establish trade relations.
    • In return for their support in the Baron's War, Louis the Sixth recognises Llywelyn the Great as regent of Wales.
    • In order to facilitate the movement of Reconquista, Pope Honorius III reverses Innocent III’s earlier judgment and declares Ferdinand III of Castile legitimate heir to the Kingdom of Leon.
    • The Livonian Brothers of the Sword begin to conquer Estonia.
  • 1219
    • Damietta, Egypt falls to the Crusaders after a siege in the Fifth Crusade. 
    • Danish crusaders led by King Valdemar II conquer Tallinn in the Battle of Lyndanisse. The Flag of Denmark allegedly falls from the sky during that battle. Their stronghold in Tallinn will help the Danes conquer the entire Northern Estonia.
    • The windmill is first introduced to China with the travels of Yelü Chucai to Transoxiana.


  • 1220
    • Estonians defeat the invading Swedes in the Battle of Lihula.
    • Frederick II is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Honorius III.
    • German Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor grants bishops sovereign rights
    • The Mongols first invade the Khwarazmian Empire; Bukhara and Samarkand are taken.
    • Conrad of Masovia drives out the heathen Prussians from a Masovian territory of Chelmno Land.
    • Trial by ordeal is abolished in England by Louis the Eigth. 
    • The German Hohenstaufen dynasty, which had ruled Sicily since 1194, adopts Palermo as its principal seat.
    • The Islamic lands of Central Asia are completely overrun by the armies of Genghis Khan.
    • The Thai Kingdom of Sukhothai is established.
    • St Benedict of Nursia was Canonized by the Roman Catholic Church.
    • Gothic architecture becomes increasingly popular in Europe.
    • The rebuilding of the Cathedral of Chartres, which had been destroyed by a fire in 1194, is completed.
    • Rebuilding of Amiens Cathedral begins.
    • Rebuilding of York Minster begins.
    • Building of the Salisbury Cathedral begins.
    • Rebuilding of the city of London begins. under the order of King Louis. This is instrumental in consolidating his position.
  • 1221
    • A Mongol army under Jochi captures the city of Gurganj and massacres the inhabitants, casualties being over a million.
    • Genghis Khan enters the Indus Valley.
    • The Maya of the Yucatán revolt against the rulers of Chichen Itza.
    • Sultan al-Kamil, who was a brother of Saladin, offers Jerusalem to the Crusaders for ten years in return for Damietta, which the Crusaders eventually give up in exchange for a safe retreat from the Nile Delta.
    • The city of Nizhny Novgorod in Rus' is founded.
  • 1222
    • The situation in the Isles start to stabilize, with Louis consolidating his position as King, Scotland taking over Northern and Middle England, in addition to the English king in exile, John, ruling Ireland.
    • Ottokar I of Bohemia reunites Bohemia and Moravia.
    • The University of Padua is founded in Italy by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.
    • The Golden Bull of 1222 is issued in Hungary, limiting the power of the monarchy over the nobility.
    • The Royal Standard of Scotland is adopted to celebrate Scotland's new found position in the Isles. 
  • 1223
    • Sancho II is crowned King of Portugal
    • Battle of the Kalka River: The Mongol armies of Genghis Khan defeat the Russian warriors.
    •  Louis VIII is crowned King of France after the death of King Philip the Second.
    • In the Battle of Samara Bend, Volga Bulgars defeat the Mongol army.
    • Estonians revolt against the Livonian Brothers of the Sword and for a brief period reconquer all of their strongholds in Southern and Central Estonia.
    • The Tatar Yoke in Russia begins when the Mongolian army invades after 87 years of the dominance of the Novgorod Republic state.
  • 1224
    •  The Livonian Brothers of the Sword defeat the Latgallians and reconquer the captured strongholds in Southern and Central Estonia. With the surrender of Tartu stronghold, only Saaremaa Island remains under Estonian control.
    • The last Muslims inhabitants are expelled from Sicily and Malta.
    • At Carrión the king of Castile, Ferdinand III announces his intention to resume his effort of reconquest against al-Andalus. That same year, the Almohad caliph, Yusuf II al-Mustansir dies. He is succeeded by Abu Muhammad al-Wahid, but in al-Andalus, two competing pretenders also claim their rights to the throne: Abu Muhammad Ibn al-Mansur al-Adil in Seville, and Abu Muhammad abu Abdallah al-Bayyasi in Cordoba. The chronic political instability on the Muslim side allow the Castillan prince to beginning his campaign victoriously with the capture of Quesada.
  • 1225
    • Iltutmish, the sultan of Delhi, repels a Mongol attack and marches against Ghiyasuddin who cedes Bihar to him.
    • King Louis, in England, accepts the Magna Carta. The Magna Carta does not apply to the barons in France. 
    • The University of Naples is founded.
  • 1226
    • King Louis VIII of France allows his vassals to launch a large southward offensive against the Albigensians and the Count of Toulouse.
  • 1227
    • Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope.
    • Prince Leszek I the White, High Duke of Poland, is assassinated at an assembly of Piast dukes at Gąsawa.
    • Livonian Crusade: The Livonian Brothers of the Sword and their crusader allies cross the sea ice from mainland Estonia and defeat the last Estonian strongholds on Muhu and Saaremaa islands. This marks the end of the Estonian campaign in the Livonian Crusade. The Sword Brothers conquer Danish Estonia and Tallinn is given town rights under Riga law.
  • 1228
    • Abu Zakariya founds the Hafsid dynasty in Ifriqiyah.
    • Sukaphaa, the first Ahom king, establishes his rule in Assam.
    • The Sixth Crusade is launched from Brindisi by Emperor Frederick II, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX.
    • Baldwin II becomes emperor of the Latin Empire in Constantinople, with John of Brienne as regent.
    • King James I of Aragon launches a major offensive against the Muslims in Majorca. The same year, in Murcia, confronted to increasing Christian pressure, the cadi, Ibn Hud al-Yamadi, denounces the Almohads and acknowledges the Abbasids as legitimate caliphs, in effect declaring independence.
    • Alfonso IX of Leon conquers Mérida.
  • 1229
    • Frederick II signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy. In addition, Frederick II crowns himself King of Jerusalem. 
    • The Treaty of Paris brings the Albigensian Crusade to an end.
    • Alfonso IX of León conquers Cáceres.
    • The Catalan-Aragonese army under the command of James I of Aragon disembarks at Santa Ponça, Majorca, with the purpose of conquering the island.
    • Erik Eriksson is defeated in the Battle of Olustra and deposed as king of Sweden by Knut Långe, who proclaims himself the new king.
    • The Catholic Church permanently establishes the Inquisition, in the charge of the Dominican Order in Rome.
    • Following the deadlock tie in the election of the Venetian Doge, the number of electors is increased from 40 to 41 in order to prevent such future occurrences.
    • The University of Toulouse is founded in France.
    • The city of Turku, Finland is founded.


  • 1230
    • In the West African village of Siby, Sundiata Keita, founder of the Mali Empire, forces the Malinkés to bind themselves to each other by oath.
    • Sultan Kayqubad I of Rum defeats Shah Jalal ad-Din of Persia in the Battle of Yassıçemen, ending the Khwarazmian dynasty
    • Bulgarian tsar Ivan Asen II defeats Theodore of Epirus near the village of Klokotnitsa.
    • Alphonso IX defeats Ibn Hud al-Yamani (known as Almogàver by the Christians) at the battle of Alange. This success opens the road to Badajoz to the Leonese troops. The Portuguese king Sancho II continues his offensive southward and takes Beja, Juromenha, Serpa and Moura.
    • The Kingdoms of León and Galicia unite with the Kingdoms of Castile and Toledo under Ferdinand III.
    • The Teutonic Knights are invited into Prussia to forcibly convert the Prussians and Yatvags to Christianity.
    • At the age of 28, Louis the Ninth succeeds his father, Louis the Eighth, after he dies after dysentery. 
  • 1231
    • Mongol troops cross the Yalu River into Korea, then under the Goryeo Kingdom.
    • Emperor Frederick II promulgates the Constitutions of Melfi (also known as Liber Augustalis), a collection of laws for Sicily.
    • The Castillans reconquer the city of Quesada.
  • 1232
    • The Almohad army besieges Ceuta where Abu Musa, the rebellious brother of the caliph, has received shelter and the support of the population. The Genoese rent a part of their fleet to the rebels who successfully resist the forces of the caliph. The consequences of this revolt are threefold: the city becomes de facto independent from the Almohads, but its reliance on the Italian maritime powers increases and the trans-Saharan trade routes begin to shift eastward due to the local turmoil.
    • The Jin Dynasty in China defend their capital against the Mongol siege on Kaifeng during the Mongol–Jin War. The battle involves the use of rockets.
    • Henry I of Cyprus defeats the armies of Frederick II at the Battle of Agridi.
    • Muhammad Ibn Yusuf Ibn Nasr rebels against the independent ruler of al-Andalus, Ibn Hud al-Yadami and takes control of the city of Arjona. This is the foundation of the Nasrid dynasty.
    • Pope Gregory IX, driven from Rome by a revolt, takes refuge at Anagni.
  • 1233
    • Pope Gregory IX forbids Jews to employ Christian servants.
    • The Mongols capture Kaifeng, the capital of the Jin dynasty, after besieging it for months.
    • Mongol siege of Caizhou begins.
  • 1234
    • In the Siege of Caizhou, Song Dynasty Chinese and Mongolian armies occupy the Jurchen capital at Caizhou and the Emperor Aizong of Jin commits suicide, marking the collapse of the Jin Dynasty.
    • Sancho II of Portugal conquers the cities of Aljustrel and Mértola over the Muslims.
  • 1235
    • Mandinka prince Sundiata Keita defeats Sosso king Soumaoro Kanté, beginning the Mali Empire.
    • Lord of Ireland, Henry III, son of King John of England, begins the completely conquest of Ireland. 
  • 1236
    • Razia Sultana is the designated successor of her father to the Delhi Sultanate.
    • Only 4 of 58 districts in Sichuan, China, are captured from the Southern Song by the Mongols under Ögedei Khan. The population of Chengdu, roughly one million inhabitants, is summarily slaughtered after the Mongols take the city with little effort.
    • Henry III of Ireland marries Eleanor of Provence.
    • Córdoba is taken by Castilian troops from the emir Ibn Hud al-Yamadi as part of the of Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula. The Great Mosque here becomes  a Roman Catholic cathedral.
    • The Lithuanians and Semigallians defeat the Livonian Brothers of the Sword at the Battle of Saule.
    • Volga Bulgaria is conquered by the Mongol Batu Khan.
  • 1237
    • After their defeat in the Battle of Saule, the Livonian Brothers of the Sword are absorbed into the Teutonic Order as the autonomous Livonian Order
    • After turning aside south for 15 years to invade the Caucasus, Asia Minor and Persia—united now under Batu Khan with representatives of all four khanates leading 150,000 Mongol, Turkish and Persian troops into Europe, resume the European invasion with the resumption of Mongol invasion of Rus' foreshadowed by.
  • 1238
    • The Mongol Hordes of Batu Khan defeat the Rus' under Yuri Vsevolodovich of Vladimir-Suzdal at the Battle of the Sit River.
    • James I of Catalonia captures the city of Valencia from the Moors, who retreat to Granada.
    • The Livonian Order gives Northern Estonia back to Denmark with the Treaty of Stensby.
    • The Mongols seize Moscow, at the time a small town.
  • 1239
    • Pope Gregory IX excommunicates Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.
    • The pope grants the status of Crusade to king of Castile's ongoing invasion of the Muslim kingdom of Murcia.
    • The main tower of Lincoln Cathedral in England collapses, immediate repairs are placed in progress by King Louis. 


  • 1240
    • Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kiev.
    • Tuan Mash'ika, an Arab, travels and introduces Islam to Sulu.
    • Russian prince Alexander Nevsky defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Neva, saving the Novgorod Republic from a full-scale enemy invasion from the North.
    • The civil war era in Norway ends.
    • King Louis begins to integrate the Kingdom of England into France, starting with legislature. 
    • Sancho II of Portugal conquers the cities of Ayamonte and Cacella over the Muslims as part of the Reconquista.
  • 1241
    • The Mongols overwhelm the feudal Polish armies of Sandomierz and Kraków provinces and plunder the abandoned city of Kraków, after the battle of Chmielnik.
    • The Mongols under the command of Baidar, Kadan and Orda Khan, defeat the feudal Polish nobility at the Battle of Legnica, including the Knights Templar.
    • Batu Khan and Subutai defeat Béla IV of Hungary at the Battle of Mohi. The battle is the last major event in the Mongol Invasion of Europe.
    • Lord Henry of Ireland marries into the house of O'Neill, after completing the conquest of Ireland. 
    • A succession crises or other priorities results in the Mongols withdrawing behind their river barrier into the Ukraine and the Russia's, leaving Central Asian and far Eastern Europe peoples tributary to the Khanates, but leaving Poland and Hungary to begin recovery and reorganization.
    • Pope Celestine IV succeeds Pope Gregory IX as the 179th pope.
    • Emperor Lizong of Song China accepts the Neo-Confucian teachings of the late Zhu Xi, including his commentary on the Four Books. This will have an impact upon the philosophical schools of surrounding countries as well, including Korea, Japan, and Vietnam..
    • The Estonian rebellion of 1237 is forced down on Saaremaa island by the Livonian Order.
  • 1242
    • Batu Khan establishes the Golden Horde at Sarai.
    • During the Battle on the ice of Lake Peipus, Russian forces, led by Alexander Nevsky, rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights.
  • 1243
    • The city of Brno is founded.
    • The Mongols defeat the Seljuk Turks of Rum at the Battle of Köse Dag.
    • Pope Innocent IV succeeds Pope Celestine IV as the 180th pope.
    • Castille vassalizes the Muslim Kingdom of Murica. A garrison is placed in the capital to help speed christianization. 

1300 - 1399

File:British Isles in 1300 (Angleterre).jpg

1400 - 1499

1500 - 1599

1600 - 1699

1700 - 1799

1800 - 1899

1900 - 1999

2000 - 2015

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