This is an abridged version of the chronology for the 'An Orange Dynasty' timeline.

17th Century


(England) - Following his victory after a brief war in Ireland and the signing of the Treaty of Limerick, King William III stunned his unionised nations after he declared that his wife and co-regent Mary II was expecting a child. Following several months of hard labour and sickness on the wife's part, the couple announce to the world that Mary had  given birth to a healthy boy on 14 April, christening their new son and heir Frederick William Henry of Orange-Nassau.


(Nine Years War) - After hearing the news of several major English-Dutch naval defeats at the hands of the French off the coast of Portugal, William personally traveled to Belgium to take up command of his nations united forces, later being defeated at the hands of the French at the Battle of Landen.

(Nine Years War) - Seven years after its capture by French troops, Fort Albany, a major outpost of the Hudson Bay Company, was recaptured by an militia of 50 Englishmen, solidifying their control over Northern Canada with the death of three French defenders and the seizure of four ships loaded with furs.


(England) - Following the rapid growth of national debt due to the ongoing war with France, the then Whig dominated English Parliament passed an act at the bequest of the Scottish merchant William Patterson with the aim of raising state capital with the promise of safe and steady interest. Ultimately raising £1.2 million for the war effort, it was the first government debt in the western world.

(Colonialism) - After her husband caught dysentery during a prolonged period of military action in Flanders, Mary II (without advice from William III) advised the Scottish government to pursue the establishment of a trading post along the Calabar Coast in Africa to tap into the lucrative slave trade in the region, as well as provide for the relatively tariff free transportation of goods from the India and the Dutch Cape Colony.

(Nine Years War) - In the wake of severe English-Dutch losses on both sea and land, William III granted Thomas Tollemache leadership over a contingent of troops that were to land and take the French port of Brest. After several setbacks, the joint English-Dutch army carried out the night-time siege, Tollemache ultimately being forced back after losing 10% of his troops.


(England) - Fifty-two years after it was originally passed by the anti-absolutist English Parliament, the Licensing Order of 1643 that allowed for strict press censorship lapsed into expiration with the consent of both William III (who had recently arrived back in England) and Mary II, both monarchs citing the Bill of Rights as the commanding document in their decision.

(Colonialism) - Having only arrived two months prior, William was made aware of the advice his wife granted to the Scottish Parliament in regards to the formation of a Scottish trading post along the Calabar Coast. Ultimately calling a conference composed of both him and his co-regent, leading ministers in the Scottish parliament, the Company of Scottish Trading (which was chartered to establish the port), as well as the major financiers of the operation (including William Patterson), the assembly ultimately decided to push forward with the so-called Calabar Scheme with promise of restricted tariffs for Dutch and English traders.

(England) - Three years after the birth of their first child, William and Mary announce again that their expecting a second. Again, after months of hard labour and a near-death experience with pneumonia on Mary's part, the co-regents declare that the Queen had given birth to another boy, christening him Johan Philip of Orange-Nassau.


(Nine Years War) - After several defeats over the previous six years of naval action, a joint English-Dutch navy finally defeated several French ships off the coast of the Dutch town of Ostend. Taking severe losses in the battle with 28 ships (mostly small cargo vessels) being sunk in exchange for only three out of eight French warships, their victory was one of the only successes for the Grand Alliance on the open sea during the war, and marked the beginning of an extensive overhaul of the English-Dutch navies, an operation headed by William III.

(Colonialism) - Receiving the backing of nearly 5% of all the money circulating in Scotland, as well as the extensive investment by British companies (regulated by the crown) hoping to obtain a stake in the Company of Scottish Trading, the Parliament of Scotland passed the Trading Rights Act 1696 which granted the CST the rights to a monopoly on Scottish trading in the Americas, Africa, and India, with further rights granted to English and Dutch companies which were to be granted relatively free access to any ports established by the agency.


(Colonialism) - Setting off from Port Glasgow in early-Spring, the twenty-seven ships of the first CST expedition made their way south with the aid of several English and Dutch warships to the coast of Africa, landing in two waves of 500 men on land near the African port of Akwa Akpa in order to set up the company's first trading post.

(Nine Years War) - After nine years, countless deaths, and several million pounds of debt, the War of the Grand Alliance was brought to an end by the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick. Officially granting the colonies of Saint-Domingue, Pondichéry, and Nova Scotia to France, the treaty also stipulated that Louis XIV was to recognize the legitimacy of William III as King of England and abandon James II's claim, as well as restore the de facto pre-war borders in Europe and America with the exceptions of Strasbourg (which was to go to Austria) and Mons, Luxembourg and Kortrijk (three fortresses granted to Spain).

(England) - Following several recent stillbirths and the deaths of all but one child, Princess Anne, sister to Queen Mary, died after contracting pneumonia following her fifteenth pregnancy. Having refused to seek support from the royals who had dismissed her from Kensington Palace in 1692, her illness got progressively worse over time as she slowly slipped into a deeper depression before failing to wake up one morning in April. Her only surviving offspring, Prince William, was invited back to the royal residences after William III received the news of his mother's death.

European Map 1697 (An Orange Dynasty)

Europe after the Treaty of Ryswick


(Colonialism) - After receiving news of the end of hostilities in Europe, the Abanaki tribe of New England reluctantly agreed to sign a peace deal with the English colonists, granting them several sq km of native land in exchange for an accord of peace.

(Colonialism) - Having built and established Fort William on the Calabar Coast, John Gordon, the heir to the Earl of Sutherland and the first governor of the trading post as designated by the Company of Scottish Trading met with several native leaders of the sea port of Akwa Akpa to discuss conditions of free trade with the recently established fort. As the largest indigenous town in the region the chiefs of Akwa Akpa didn't submit to the free trade agreement that the Earl initially set out, and only after several corrections to the status of tariffs and goods exchanges did the native leaders submit to the CST's demand for a monopoly on the port's slave trade.


(England) - Prompted by the rising debt incurred by maintaining a large military during the peacetime following the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick, the Tory dominated Parliament passed and act to limit the size of the English land forces to 10,000 'native born' men (up from an 5,000 originally proposed by the leading ministers). As a result, William III was forced to send away his elite Blue Guard back to the Dutch Republic, as well as disband all foreign troops in Ireland.

(Colonialism) - After half a year and thousands of miles of travel, William Dampier, captain of the forth-rate HMS Guernsey arrived on the Western Coast of New Holland with orders from his financiers as well as several leading ministers of King William's ministry to explore and categorise the biology of the continent, including those that rested on the then-unexplored east coast.

(Industry) - In late August, after years of designing and testing, Thomas Savery was finally granted a patent on his first commercially available steam engine. Claiming that the new device would be able to pump out water that often flooded English coal mines, the engine didn't quite live up to it's initial promise but was nevertheless presented to the royal family in December. After being received on good terms, especially by Mary II, Savery would go onto be raised to the Peerage of England with the title of 'Baron Modbury'.

(Spain) - Nearly one year after the signing of the First Partition Treaty which granted the succession of the Spanish throne (then held by the ailing Charles II Habsburg) to Duke Joseph Ferdinand Leopold of Bavaria, the seven year old heir-presumptive died after a period of severe sickness and seizures (with rumours that his death was an assassination via poison), once again raising the uncertain question regarding the Spanish succession. William III later sent several diplomats to Spain, France and Austria to oversee negotiations related to a second treaty that would definitively decide the a heir for Charles II's vast empire.


(Colonialism) - After completing the task of extensively surveying the land and life of western New Holland, William Dampier reluctantly turned his sites to the primary goal of researching and mapping the unexplored eastern coast. After weeks of journeying around the south of the continent, the HMS Guernsey began to make its way up north to investigate the eastern coast, the ship's captain making personal remarks on its stark difference to the barren west and its relative habitability. Making landfall only once during the mapping process, Dampier and his surviving crew were later forced to abandon his sinking ship after running aground in a large corral reef, taking only a few of the hundreds of maps and scientific journals he kept during the expedition on the crew's arduous escape back to the Dutch East Indies, the Cape Colony, and then India, and despite the loss of the Guernsey, Dampier's voyage and surviving research notes would ultimately propel the buccaneer to new heights in popularity and lead to further expeditions to New Holland in the first half of the 18th century.

(Spain) - Months following of deliberation and debate, the Second Partition Treaty (known officially as the Treaty of London) was signed by the Dutch, French and English governments, all nations agreeing to Charles II's last will and testament which stipulated that Louis XIV's grandson, Philip, Duke of Anjou, was to succeed to the Spanish throne upon Charles' death, and without the partition of the empire that was proposed in the original Treaty of Partition.

(Spain) - With the death of Charles II's death on 23 October reaching Louis XIV by early-November, the king of France obliged by the Treaty of London and sent the Duke of Anjou to take up the throne of Spain. Accepting the new monarch reluctantly, the Estates General of the Spanish realms agreed to crown Louis XIV's grandson as their new king, however it quickly became apparent that the French king was determined to make Philip's vast empire no more than a puppet of Louis' realm. By forcing Philip to abandon the free trade stipulation outlined in the Treaty of London and raise tariffs on Dutch and English merchants, Louis XIV agitated the two maritime powers towards siding with Austria and the Holy Roman Empire which had refused to accept Philip V as head of the Spanish crown, preferring instead Emperor Leopold I's second son, the Archduke Charles Habsburg.

18th Century


(England) - With war in Europe looming due to a succession crisis, the leading Princes in the Dutch Republic and ministers in the English Parliament met to discuss matters regarding the future of the English monarchy in the Seven Provinces and the land rights of the two princes royal. Meeting sporadically over the year, William argued for a continued strong tie between the two nations he effectively governed in order to serve as a bulwark against growing French influence on their continent, however the Dutch princes refused to accept their Stadtholder's arguments, claiming that a continued, long time personal union between the state would only lead to the Dutch Republic being sidelined by a growing English economy. Talks would have to continue into 1702.

(War of the Spanish Succession) - Having refused to accept the ascension of Philip V to the Spanish throne, as well as having recognized the French provocation against French and Dutch merchants in Spain, Emperor Leopold I ordered Prince Eugene of Savoy to lead troops into the Spanish controlled Duchy of Milan in northern Italy in order to capture the territory and diffuse the new-found Bourbon influence in region. Despite coming out victorious in a series of decisive maneuvers that led to the capture of almost all the Duchy, Prince Eugene was forced back in December by French troops due to the fact that his army was severely restricted following a credit crisis in Vienna which called for many troops to be disbanded. By the end of the year, Milan was effectively split in two.


(War of the Spanish Succession) - With the conflict widening in north Italy, the powers of England, the Dutch Republic, and the Holy Roman Empire, having signed the Treaty of the Hague in October 1701 which reformed their Grand Alliance of the Nine Years War, declared war on the French and Spanish kingdoms in late April after a diplomatic resolution to perceived French expansionism couldn't be found, officially beginning the War of the Spanish Succession. With Eugene of Savoy taking lead of the Austrian armies, and Henri de Massue, Earl of Galway being appointed Captain-General of the joint Dutch-English continental forces (an appointed made primarily by Mary II, suspicious of the more experienced John Churchill), the two armies initially make good headway into breaking French forts in Alsace and along the Rhine, however the death and defeat of the Earl of Galway at the Battle of Fauvillers sent the Grand Alliance into momentary disarray.

(England/Dutch Republic) - Having resolved to name himself and John Churchill joint commanders of the Dutch-English forces in Europe after Galway's death (Mary II arguing against the appointment before yielding to her husband), William III hastily signed an agreement with diplomats the Dutch princes to resolve the succession of the English and Dutch nations. It was decided that as William had two sons, the eldest was to inherit the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland (as well as all their foreign holdings), whilst the youngest was to be appointed by the princes and the Dutch legislature to the position of Stadtholder, but not to Admiral-General (the head of the navies) or Captain-General (head of the armies), as William III was.

(Colonialism) - With the news of war reaching the Americas, the first maneuvers of Queen Mary's War began when a militia from the Province of Carolina under James Moore moved on the Spanish fort at St Augustine, beginning the Siege of St Augustine. Occurring only a few days after the Battle of Flint River (fought between Native American's sided with either the Spanish or English), the siege of St Augustine lasted three weeks, the small colonial army successfully breaking into the fort after a small wooden section of the wall went up in flames in late November allowing Moore to enter and massacre its defenders during the night before a relief force could come and successfully break the siege.

(War of the Spanish Succession) - Despite being forced to limit their forces in Europe after Galway's crushing defeat, the English armies on the continent proved themselves far more efficient under William and Churchill than their predecessor as joint Generals of the English-Dutch forces, defeating a major French army on the River Sauer and seizing several French and Spanish forts in the Spanish Netherlands by the end of the year, all whilst Eugene swept over Milan, his forces now in resupply from Vienna since the war was officially declared. However, after Leopold I shunned the elector of Bavaria following an offer to join the Grand Alliance on the promise of the the throne of Naples or Sicily, Maximilian II began to make movements towards siding with the French.


(Colonialism) - In their only independent battle during the war, a small Scottish navy attached to the nation's only colonial holding in Calabar intercepted and defeated a large French warship that was sent to capture or destroy Fort William. Believed to have sailed from a new French holding somewhere along the west coast due to the level of fresh fruit the warships hull was carrying, the formation to an enemy fort so close to their only lucrative foreign holding sent a shock wave through the shareholders and colonial officials of the Company of Scottish Trading.

(War of the Spanish Succession) - Amidst the early Austrian victories in northern (and later, southern) Italy, Leopold I officially backed his son Archduke Charles for the throne of Spain, declaring him 'Charles III' only two months after France turned their backs on the Treaty of Ryswick and declared the Roman Catholic James Francis Edward Stuart (the eldest son of James II and VII) as King 'James III and VIII' of England. Notably, the realms of William and Mary initially refused to accept Charles' claim to the Spanish crown due to the belief that it would unduly extend Hasburg influence back across the world, especially if he were to ascend to the position of Holy Roman Emperor (there views changed on the matter shortly after the Austro-German victory over the Bavarians (who had recently entered the war on the side of France) at the Battle of Weilbach.

(War of the Spanish Succession) - Following loss after loss, with the French and Spanish reeling back in northern Italy, Naples, the Netherlands (where William and Churchill, now named Duke of Marlborough, were successfully plundering the Spanish and French holding without seeing much in the way of defence), and Germany, Savoy entered into secret negotiations with the Grand Alliance that would ultimately see the Duchy move over to the Austrian faction by mid 1703 with promises for land gains in Milan and Sicily, as well as monetary reimbursement for losses. Incensed by their disloyalty, French troops that remained hauled up in pockets in Milan swept over the Savoyard borders and sacked a number of villages and towns on their way back into France, freeing up a number of Austrians soldiers to launch an invasion of Sicily after a number of Spanish defenders protecting the island were called back to Spain to go on an offensive against a Portugal which had recently joined the war on the side of the Grand Alliance.

(War of the Spanish Succession) - The Catalonia campaign opened up in Spain after its viceroy and several military garrisons rose up against Philip V with a declaration of support for the recently appointed 'Charles III'. Seizing several small settlements, by late in the year only the largest fortresses in Catalonia were still in the hands of Philip's loyalists, particularly Barcelona (which was held only with the support of French military intervention), a city which was to become one of the primary goals for the maritime powers over the following years of conflict.

(Colonialism) - Several months after the taking of Fort St Augustine, Spanish irregulars landing in from Cuba launched a brutal raid of Muscogee Indian (who were allied with the Carolinian colonists) lands in retribution for the massacre carried out by the English at their naval fort. Enraged by the Spanish violence against their allies, a small contingent of colonials traveled into into the lands of one of Spain's Indian allies, the Apalachee, burnt and pillaged several of their largest villages and over the course of a week massacred 500 to 1000 natives and took an immeasurable number more as prisoners.


(Colonialism) - Following news of the Apalachee massacre reaching New France, French and Indian militia in Massachusetts conducted a raid on a small English settlement in one of the most disputed areas of North America. Traveling over a frozen lake deep into the night, the French forces ransacked the unnamed town and burned it to the ground, murdering over 75 of the settlers in the process, this act sending a wave of anti-French sentiment through the northern English colonies resulting in many merchants from France being killed or driven from New England.

(War of the Spanish Succession) - Having been planning an assault on the Iberian peninsula since the beginning of the Portuguese entry into the war the year previous, a Grand Alliance force composed of soldiers from Spain who supported Charles Habsburg, England, the Dutch Republic, and Austria landed near the important port city of Gibraltar and seized it, quickly driving the joint French-Spanish troops who guarded its walls to capitulation within a day. Already having won dominance over the Mediterranean a year earlier in the Battle of the Straits of Gibraltar, the Grand Alliance's victory over their enemies in the vital port city only served to further weaken Philip V's position on the Spanish throne.

(War of the Spanish Succession) - With years of advancement in Europe reeling with the relentless march of the Grand Alliance in Italy, Spain, and Germany, Louis XIV and his generals begun their most daring campaign during the entire war. After hearing of the loss of Gibraltar and the important part the Austrian cannons served to weaken the Spanish moral, the leaders of France undertook an operation that they hoped would end Austria's ability to wage war and send the entirety of the enemy alliance into disarray; a seizure of the imperial capital in Vienna. Sending tens-of-thousands of French and Bavarian troops over a grueling three week march into the heart of the Holy Roman Empire (attempting to bypass the Anglo-Dutch forces of the north and the Austrians in the south) and drove their way to the gates of Vienna, besieging the city whilst the majority of the Grand Alliance's armies were separated an different fronts, ultimately breaking the ancient capital after two weeks of near-constant bombardment and sending the Austrian government fleeing east.

(War of the Spanish Succession) - However, only four days after their miraculous victory in Austria (a maneuver that the Spaniards and French both believed would force Leopold I to come to a truce), their quick gains were unraveled after a large detachment of Bavarian troops became embroiled in a clash near the town of Wallsee with a small contingent of Anglo-Dutch-Austrian forces that had caught up with their enemy after weeks of pursuit. Lasting two days, this battle would go onto become the largest and most bloody of the entire war as the French army (garrisoned in Vienna) came out to me the fast approaching enemy regiments led by the capable Duke of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy, the struggle climaxing on the banks of the River Danube as the joint armies of the Grand Alliance lured the French into crossing the body of water before attacking head on, resulting in mass casualties on both sides. By the dawn of the third day, the French and Bavarians had escaped to the west, abandoning Vienna and Austria with 25,000 men killed or drowned out of an original 62,000 (with an extra 15,000 captured over the two days), all whilst the Alliance's forces of 45,000 lost a little over 10,000 troops. Instead of ending the Austrian ability to wage war, France had allowed itself to be opened up to counter-attack, her only German allies in Cologne and Bavaria being crippled by the loss.

(War of the Spanish Succession) - With the news of the defeat at Wallsee having not reached them yet, a joint army of French and Spanish soldiers (invigorated by the news of a recent victory on the waves by France against a larger Anglo-Dutch navy) marched against the walls of Gibraltar in an attempt to throw the small contingent of Austrian, Dutch and English defenders back into the sea after a large number of their forces left to aid the growing rebellion in Catalonia. With a tactical advantage in both number of men and guns, the initially optimistic Franco-Spanish besiegers became increasingly weary as the coalition forces of the Grand Alliance gave a harsh and bloody defence of their newly captured port city. Ultimately, the protection they held over Gibraltar during the remaining year of war served only as a bulwark against the Spanish defence of Catalonia, drawing more and more of their soldiers away from the growing violence in the north-east of the country in a stubborn effort to break the defenders, allowing for the dissent to spread.


(Holy Roman Empire) - Having sustained significant emotional and physical damage during the flight from Vienna during the height of the French siege, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor died of a heart attack in the provisional court at Brno. Although having not technically been passed onto heir yet due to the system of election the emperor's position held, Leopold's eldest son Joseph had by then de facto succeeded to all his father's titles, including that of the Holy Roman Emperor, and in his father's name he declared that he would carry on the conflict with France "if only to avenge his predecessors name and legacy". This announcement came during a string of major Austrian victories in northern Italy following the crushing victory in Wallsee, serving to further the Grand Alliance's moral and urging them to push back the armies of the Party of the Two Crowns in preparation for a mass counter-attack.

(War of the Spanish Succession) - With the French reeling back on all fronts, the regiments of the maritime powers, led but the Captain-Generals William III and the Duke of Marlborough, began their sweeping invasions of metropolitan France in their final push to end the war on favourable terms. With Prince Eugene busy leading his Austrian armies in northern Italy, the Anglo-Dutch soldiers had to struggle against the battered but resilient French until the final defeat of the Franco-Spanish forces in Milan and Savoy after the 2nd siege of Turin which freed up the talented Prince of Savoy to aid in his allies incursion into France. By the time he entered in September, the Grand Alliance had carved a bloody cut across south-east and northern France, an equally bloody struggle continuing day by day in Catalonia where those loyal to Charles Habsburg continued to fight against those loyal to Philip V.

(England) - After successfully coming out with a sweeping victory in that year's general election in May and June, the Tories began a probing effort to move peace with France in August, encumbered only by the news of the struggle at Reims which would serve as a massive moral boost for the Anglo-Dutch soldiers believing that they would soon march on Paris (an action only stopped by Mary II coaxing her husband out of his decision after being persuaded to do so by her leading ministers, the Queen becoming increasingly easily to influence as the years went by). After the King and Duke of Marlborough's final victory in their siege at the Reims in October, peace talks began again as French diplomats were sent consistently to the hands of the English King in order to determine what a peace with the Grand Alliance would bring to France, Louis XIV, sick and aggrieved at his hopeless position, granting the Anglo-Dutch forces in his territories to a truce on the promise that a treaty would soon have to be signed to rearrange Europe in the victors image. The Austrians in southern France however, continued to fight on despite probing talks by the French ambassador and offers of peace, the news Holy Roman Emperor determined to save face after his nation's humiliating defeat at Vienna.


(War of the Spanish Succession) - With peace now made between the maritime powers of William and Louis XIV in France, the forces of Austria and their closest allies in the HRE continued their march across the southern regions of their greatest enemy, unencumbered by the growing French resistance in the aftermath of their ally's separate peace. Having cut into the heart of the Occitanian lands of Louis' realm, the armies of Joseph I swept unhindered through the countryside, pillaging and burning hundreds of villages and small towns in retribution for the 'burning' of their own imperial city, however with numerous regiments now free from the conflict in the Spanish Netherlands and northern France, French and Spanish troops swept south and north to meet their final enemies in open combat, the cries by William and Mary in England going unheeded as the Austrians found themselves trapped behind enemy lines in a pincer maneuver. Now confined deep into Louis XIV's heartlands, his surviving generals clashing with Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden (who had led the incursion and raids), the Holy Roman general dying as thousands of his troops were slaughtered in their escape back east, and whilst many more French fell in the battle, the demoralizing loss finally brought the humiliated Austrians to negotiate a peace.

(War of the Spanish Succession) - With victory having become a dimmer and dimmer possibility over the previous few years of war, the Spanish monarchy under Philip V was now facing international invasion, internal revolt, the loss of some of his largest, most strategic cities (primarily Gibraltar and Barcelona), as well as growing dissent within his own court after Louis XIV's hand had been forced towards peace. Having come to the conclusions that he needed to inquire into an armistice with the promise that he remained a land holding lord, the ambassadors of the Grand Alliance met with the Bourbon diplomats demands for peace willingly as thousands of Spanish soldiers laid down their arms with cries of peace after five years of grueling conflict. However, despite the de facto peace now met between the powers of the continent, Catalonians continued their raids and massacres across eastern Spain in the name of 'Charles III', drawing ire from the Spanish public after the news of ceasefire had reached them, the violence that perpetuated doing nothing to put the pro-Habsburg faction forward as an alternative to the new Bourbon monarch in the upcoming treaty negotiations.

(War of the Spanish Succession) - Months after the end of most hostilities in Europe, the great powers that had fought over the previous five years were brought together separately in the signing of two documents that they hoped would rearrange the western world and bring peace after the almost two decades of constant warfare. Signing treaties at both Mainz (where the maritime powers and Portugal met with French and Spanish diplomats) and Augsburg (where the Holy Roman Empire as well as the Duchy of Savoy negotiated peace with their two enemies), the two documents were drafted and re-drafted countless times with the Austrians consistently arguing with nations of William III who wanted a more lenient division of Spain and Europe, rather than Emperor Joseph's plans regarding full Austrian control to Spanish Italy with Charles III taking 'his' place as king in Spain. Ultimately, William and the maritime diplomats won out in the negotiations, successfully eliminating the threat of Philip V from ever coming to the throne in France (but allowing him to keep his place in Spain), as well as liberally dividing up his territory in Europe; the Duchy of Milan and Kingdom of Naples being handed to the Austrian crown, the Kingdom of Sicily being granted to the Duke of Savoy for his support of the Grand Alliance, the Spanish Netherlands (alongside a small region of northern France) being awarded to the Dutch Republic, with England being granted control over Gibraltar (which had successfully held out for the entire war until the armistice announcement earlier in the year). Meanwhile in America, England was further granted the island of Acadia and complete control of Newfoundland from France (the terms of control over the Hudson Bay being an oversight on the signatories part, both sides continuing to claim the region), with the lands of northern Florida (including the fort of St Augustine) being absorbed into the English Province of Carolina.

European Map 1706 (An Orange Dynasty)

Europe after the Treaties of Mainz and Ausburg


(Colonialism) - Despite the war ending in Europe months before hand, several minor skirmishes between French and English colonials (as well as their Indian allies) continued a wave of violence that lasted well into the year, only ending after the signing of the Treaty of Plymouth that set out how to effectively transfer control of territories granted to English colonies in the Treaty of Mainz, as well as end the hostilities between the natives and settlers. One Indian tribe, however, did not receive any representation during the proceedings in Plymouth; the Wabanaki Confederacy (as a result of their particularly brutal treatment of English colonists during Queen Mary's War), this perceived slight resulting in the continuation of conflict with the tribe now led by the popular Jesuit missionary, Father Sébastien Rale. Leading tribes of the confederation on raids throughout colonial farmlands in the farthest reaches of New England, these hostilities would continue to grow throughout the year, resulting in the protracted full-scale conflict between the English colonies and their Native American enemies in the Wabanaki War.

(Colonialism) - With the war with France at an end, Scotland returned to merchant activities on the east coast of Africa, their 'monopoly' over the Calabar slave trade in Akwa Akpa turning a profit almost every year since the building of Fort William, even during wartime. As a result, the Scottish Parliament passed 'Scottish West Africa Trading Act 1707' in August, granting the Company of Scottish Trading complete sovereignty over a ten km stretch of land along the Calabar coast (the majority of which they had no control over) that would allow them to apply the laws of the company to those lands, including an enhanced right to trade with African slavers. As a result, even before the end of the year, profits from the company increased 3 fold as greater leeway to the purchasing or general acquisition of slaves provided a greater turn of profit.


(Colonialism) - With several minor skirmishes being played out the year prior, the Wabanaki War enters into its first stage of 'large scale' combat when a small New York militia was forced to defend the small Fort Arnold along Otter Creek when a large band of native warriors attempt to storm it during the night. After hours of grueling fighting outside the main settlement, the Wabanaki soldiers were driven away by the English settlers who pursued them throughout the following day, themselves raiding a village during this period and burning and capturing several American Indians. After news of the successful raids spread throughout the colony (fueled by an atmosphere of vengeance aided by the confederacy's failed siege on the Fort Arnold), the governor of the New York Province successfully raised a small 'professional' military for the sole purpose of defence against native attacks.

(Scotland) - Having not maintained an official navy since the end of the Battle of Flodden almost two centuries earlier, the Scottish Parliament managed to persuade King William to pass the 'Naval Extension Bill for 1708' which allowed for the laying down of fifteen military vessels (the ships used during the previous war had been entirely owned and operated by independent businessmen), despite the outcries by wealthy merchants in the English Parliament. Having feared the rise of northern mercantilism in the wake of the successful Calabar scheme, wealthy members of the English elite believed that a stronger Scottish navy would severely limit their power of trade, their attempts to persuade their monarch being almost successful if not for the intervention of Prince Fredrick William who had been sympathetic to the mercantile cause of the Scottish state and had narrowly convinced his father to allow the bill to pass.


(Industry) - Having attempted to produce cast iron through the use of coke fuel for several years previous, the English Quaker Abraham Darby died after an explosion at his blast furnace killed him and his immediate family following a rapid shift in pressure in the machine. Immediately prior to this disaster, Darby had proposed several new processes that he believed would be able to produce cast iron at a far more cheaper and efficient level than his contemporaries. Ultimately, Darby's coke fuel method did prove to be the most effective, the process would have to wait over a quarter of a century before the long dead inventors ideas were rediscovered.

(Colonialism) - With the Wabanaki War continuing to drag on throughout the harsh winter of 1708, the English colonists regrouped after a series of major strategic losses to the Indians (who were facing particularly high casualty rates themselves) with several generals who served in Queen Mary's War being placed at the head of militia groups in the New England area with plans drawn up to finally bring the conflict to an end. Waiting for a break in the severe Native raiding that had resulted in mass starvation throughout rural northern New York, New Hampshire and Massachusetts, the generals committed themselves to an pincer movement on the largest Wabanaki settlements, one particular military leader from the colonies previous war, Francis Nicholson, besieging a minor fort set up by the spiritual Wabanaki leader, Sebastian Rale. After a brief fire fight inside the settlements walls which resulted in the burning down of the majority of the forts defences, it has been discovered that Rale has been swiftly killed in the battle; his death, coupled with those of Chief Mog and Chief Wowurna, dragging the moral of the Indian warriors to its lowest point resulting in the remaining leaders of the Confederacy to request peace from Governor Joseph Dudley of the Massachusetts Bay colony, an appeal that Dudley accepted to bring an end to hostilities.

(Poland-Lithuania) - Following a string of minor Swedish defeats in the so-called Great Northern War against their Russian enemies, the King of Poland, Stanisław I, was beginning to grow wearing of Sweden, particularly their promises to defend his realm after they placed him on its throne. As a result, he slowly turned to the only power willing to help support him in his struggle against soldiers of his ousted predecessor (Augustus II the Strong), Louis XIV and France. Taking the initiative to expand his sphere of influence and market following his defeat two years earlier, the King of France sent several regiments of soldiers to help bolster his sudden ally halfway across the continent. Recognizing that if Louis were to spread his string of alliances to Poland-Lithuania Austria's eastern flank would be open to attack, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I sent German soldiers into Stanisław's nation, reluctantly putting their support behind the Saxon elector and former king Augustus in opposition to their French enemy.


(Fifteen Years War) - With the tensions in Europe growing ever since the French intervention in Poland-Lithuania, attempts to resolve the crisis diplomatically failed time and time again after French ambassadors refused to grant the Austrians any leeway in discussions, particularly after news of a minor skirmish between regiments of French and Austrians in Poland spread throughout the continent. By mid-February, the armies of the two nations in Poland-Lithuania were committed to full conflict as simply military maneuvers between regiments turned into full pitched battles, the majority of which seeing the Austrians (led by Prince Eugene) come out victorious. As a result, ambassadors of the Holy Roman Empire to France were expelled by Louis XIV on 16 April with one being thrown into prison for refusing to leave the country on the King's command, an action that ultimately led to the Austrian declaration of war on 25 April, officially beginning the Fifteen Years War.


(Fifteen Years War) - With the final defeat of French forces at Venisey and Lagesse assuring the Grand Alliance their opening into metropolitan France, Austrian, Prussian and English soldiers swarmed across the French countryside as they pillaged and sieged a number of settlements across the populous north of Louis XV's nation. As a result, the King of France, with counsel from his highest ranking marshals, offered his enemies an armistice that he hoped would bring an end to the long conflict; ambassadors of the Grand Alliance agreeing to the proposal set out by the French monarch. However, peace plans quickly unravelled as Philip V, encouraged by his leading ministers, a number of French generals in Spain, as well as the recent death of his eldest son and heir, pushed a majority of his men in Catalonia into southern France, claiming the throne in spite of his brother in a last ditch attempt to reverse the fortunes of the conflict. However, after suffering a series of debilitating set-backs and defeats in Occitania which led to the majority of his remaining French and Spanish supporters to abandon him, Philip V made the fateful decision to not only abdicate the throne, but also flee to Spanish America with his family to avoid the now certain retribution he would face at the hands of his enemies and formers allies he'd betrayed.

(Fifteen Years War) - With the conflict now at a close following the flight of the Spanish Bourbons to America, the victors of the conflict met with the old enemies in the Imperial city of Trier to decide on the partition of European territories after a decade-and-a-half of non-stop warfare. After considerable debate from both sides, especially regarding the division of colonial lands in America, India and Africa, an agreement was reached that was brought into effect with the signing of the Treaty of Trier. In the document, stipulations were made so France would be forced to give up several profitable colonies in America (as well as all territory in India), transfer the German border region of Alsace to the Duchy of Lorraine, as well as recognize English control of Newfoundland. Further conditions of the Treaty also made official Charles Habsburg's rule over Spain (which was to become a united kingdom by fusing the former crowns into the singular Spanish crown) on the promise that the new King would cede personal control of Sardinia to Sicily and Florida to England. Moreover, ambassadors for the nations that had been at peace for the previous number of years had also signed conditions of the treaty that transferred considerable masses of land to the victors of their respective wars; the Venetians winning complete sovereignty over Crete and the Aegean Islands from the Ottomans, the Turks further humiliated by being forced to cede the Banat region to Austria and upper Bessarabia to Russia. Meanwhile, after their defeat in the Great Northern War, Sweden was forced to cede to Denmark Scania and northern Oldenburg (with Prussia receiving the southern region), with their Baltic provinces and east Finland going to Russia and Pomerania to Prussia, the Swedes greatest ally in the conflict (Poland-Lithuania) being forced to Polish Silesia and the Prussian corridor to Prussia, Courland to Russia, Lesser Poland to Austria.

European Map 1725 (An Orange Dynasty)

Europe after the Treaty of Trier


(Industry) - Following years of attempts to develop an updated version of Thomas Savery's 1698 'Miner's Friend' (which had grown more and more impractical to the thriving coal mining industry throughout England and Scotland), the Cambridgeshire pastor Andrew Morton developed the 'Mortonic pressure driver'. Prompted by the calls to make the steam-based machine able to draw water out of mines far more efficiently than the primary steam engine before it, Morton had used plans laid out decades earlier by Sir Thomas Savery and another contemporary engineer, Denis Papin, to redesign Savery's original machine to make it more methodical and well versed in its intended functions (a more fuel efficient version of Morton's machine would later appear in 1743).

19th Century

20th Century

21st Century

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