What if Alexander II had survived the assassination attempt made by terrorists in St. Petersburg? His reforms would have made Russia a constitutional monarchy, and even made attempts to create a democratic environment in the Russian Empire. His reforms involved the reformation of the educational systems, his famous Emancipation of the Serfs, the judicial system and the military reforms that resulted in the first Russian professional army.
PoD- Alexander II survives the assassination attempt on his life. The assassins who attempted to kill the Tsar were ruthlessly executed.
Tsar Alexander II appoints Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich as his successor. At the same time, he introduces Russia's first constitution, enshrining the basic Civil Rights and other Constitutional rights, based on the OTL Swedish Empire's Constitution. He also establishes the State Duma, consists of the Common Duma(for the elected peoples), and the Boyar Duma(for the nobility).
Alexander II begins to suffer from health problems. His appointed successor Grand Duke Vladimir begins to take reigns of power and introduces military reform, with his father's consent. As a result, Russia now has the first professional army. At the same time, Alexander II and Grand Duke Vladimir reformed Russia's territorial institution that resulted in granting semi-autonomous status for federal subjects such as Ukraine, the Baltics, Belarus, Poland and Central Asia. Russia also reforms its financial institution, resulting in a stable financial system. The only thing Alexander II didn't reform was the economy, as he would leave that task to his appointed successor, Vladimir.
Alexander II dies from a heart attack. Vladimir is crowned as Tsar Vladimir I and embarks on an economical reform. As a result, peasants start to emigrate to the cities in search of jobs. At the same time, the Trans-Siberian Railway begins its construction.
First Sino-Japanese War breaks out. As in OTL, Japan wins this war and obtains Taiwan. Russian military officers are sent abroad for further education, including the United States, Germany, Britain and Japan.
Philippine Revolution breaks out. Russia and USA intervene in the revolution as part of the Spanish-American War and soundly defeats Spain in a series of naval battles. As a result, USA agrees to give Russia the Philippines in exchange for Cuba. Kaiser Wilhelm II, seeing Russia as a potential ally, negotiates an alliance with Vladimir I, at the expense of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Though both monarchs later negotiate with the Habsburgs in another attempt to create an alliance centered against Great Britain and France.
1900s: Prelude to the Great War
Russia captures Xinjiang and Manchuria from Qing China as compensation for the Boxer Uprising. This would create a bitter Russo-Chinese rivalry that would last for a long time.
The Russo-Japanese War breaks out. Unlike in OTL, this war results in a draw for both nations. However, due to Russia's flirtation with Germany, Great Britain joins the war on Japan's side and attempts to invade Russian Philippines from British Malaya. The Netherlands, fearing British occupation of the Dutch East Indies, agrees to cede its entire colony to Russia. Unlike in OTL, the Winter Palace Revolution was averted, due to Vladimir I's intervention and accepts the general public's demands for greater political participation and better working conditions. However, problems still linger in the reformed Russian Empire as revolutionaries call for the abolition of the Romanov dynasty and the creation of a Russian republic. One of these revolutionaries was Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov(Vladimir Lenin).
Germany enters the Russo-Japanese War on Russia's side. Both German and Russian navies successfully dislodge Britain from Malaya, allowing Russia to annex Malaya as well. This results in the creation of Russian Malayastan within the Russian South Pacific.
Russia retains the Kuril Islands, but cedes South Sakhalin to Japan.
Korea is annexed by Japan, but a Korean contigent army led by King Gojong escapes Korea into Russia. In the Russian South Pacific, Pyotr Stolypin is appointed the first Governor General. The Russian Army is also enhanced a bit further with the addition of a territorial defense force led by both Generals Emilio Aguinaldo and Alexei Brusilov.
Balkan Wars break out in the Balkans. Under threat of intervention of Russia and Austria-Hungary, the Balkan states negotiate on territories with both Serbia and Bulgaria guaranteeing Macedonia's independence. This would later result in closer Serb-Bulgarian relations.
World War One breaks out over the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Austria-Hungary sends an ultimatum to Serbia, which rejects it. Germany and Russia attempt to mediate, but Austria-Hungary also rejects their mediation. It also results in Austria-Hungary siding with Britain and France as a result of an earlier betrayal by Germany, and for Britain, having Austria-Hungary as an ally is unexpected but pleasant, since the British are itching for revenge at the hands of both Germany and Russia from the Russo-Japanese War.
The Ottoman Empire remains neutral, but Austria-Hungary invades both Serbia and Bulgaria with British help. As a result, Romania contemplates entering the war on Germany's side. The Brusilov Offensive is carried out into Habsburg territory with the help of Wilhelmine Germany, in order to force the Habsburgs to sue for peace, to no avail.
Britain and France gains a new ally in the form of the Ottoman Empire and attacks southern Russia in order to incite revolt among Russia's Muslim subjects. The invasion failed, mainly due to the constant rebellions of Arabs and Kurds in the Ottoman Empire.
In the European front, Germany and Russia force the Habsburgs out of Serbia and Bulgaria. Britain, now facing a collapse in the Balkan Front, withdraws. However, a new problem presented itself as Vladimir I's nephew Grand Duke Nicholas(OTL's Tsar Nicholas II) attempts to take command of the Russian Army(despite Vladimir I's protests), which has lately suffered a series of defeats. The German Army is also in a stalemate on both fronts.
Vladimir Lenin, in exile at Switzerland, returns to Russia through Habsburgh territory.(In OTL, he returns through German territory). Austria-Hungary launches its offensive into Bavaria and Ukraine.
A joint Anglo-French force takes Vimy Ridge from the Germans, while the USA contemplates joining the war upon reports of unrestricted submarine warfare in its waters.
Back in Russia, a failed coup against Vladimir I results in the Bolshevik faction going underground. In a few months however, Vladimir I voluntarily abdicates upon criticism that he allowed a royal family member to take control of the Russian Army, leading to its string of defeats.
Russia pulls out of the war, upon new PM Kerensky's orders. Britain and France launch a new offensive into Germany, but Austria-Hungary faces internal collapse as federal subjects demand for complete independence. The entry of the USA into the war on the Entente side tilts the tide of the war in their favor. Germany is forced to sue for peace.
Russian Civil War. The Russian Loyalists fight off against the Bolshevik rebels across all of Russia. A pro-American Filipino faction invades Russian Malayastani federal subject territory of the Philippines, and suffers defeat at the hands of the Russian Loyalists led by General Kornilov.
Russian Loyalists led by Denikin and Tukhachevsky rout the Bolsheviks out of the Ural Mountains, but suffers defeat at the Battle of Yekaterinberg. International intervention is inevitable, but the Russian Loyalist still fight on.
March 1, 1919: Korean students attempt to call for a peaceful revolution in an attempt to free their country from the Japanese, but the Japanese authorities reply back by brutally suppressing them. This action is condemned by Russia and China.
The Russian Civil War ends in a draw as Grand Duke Cyril meets the Bolshevik faction and accepts some of their demands, short of allowing the establishment of a communist regime. In addition, the people have voted to abolish the monarchy and to establish the Russian Federation as a democratic country without a Tsar to rule over them.
In Russian Malayastan, Sergei Kirov succeeds Pyotr Stolypin as Governor General, though power now lies in the elected President Emilio Aguinaldo. Some of the other officers would go to politics, such as Sukharno and Suharto. Philippines is also renamed Maharlika.
The Great Depression begins. After Kerensky's death, new Russian Federation president Iosef Dzhugasvili(OTL's Josef Stalin) is elected as President. He initiates the Five Year Plan, similar to the OTL FIve Year Plan, but no deaths are involved.
Franklin Roosevelt meets Dzhugasvili in Moscow for negotiating the fate of the pro-American Filipinos in Russian captivity. The negotiation fails, and no agreement has been reached.
1930s: Time of Turmoil
Japan starts to purge the government of moderate politicians. The Army and Navy begins to assassinate those moderate politicians as they sought to create a Fascist Party of Japan on the German model. They succeed in deposing Emperor Hirohito and install Prince Chichibu as Emperor. Bolshevik-supported underground Chinese Communist Party leaves Manchuria for mainland China, but clashes with the Kuomintang government under Chiang Kai Shek.
Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party come to power on the platform that Kaiser Wilhelm II made a mistake of allowing Otto von Bismark to accommodate the 'Asiatic hordes' of Russia instead of forging alliances with nations against the Muscovite juggernaut. To prove his point, he places the Hohenzollerns under house arrest.
Sergey Kirov succeeds Dzhugasvili as President of the Russian Federation.
Benito Mussolini focuses on building the Italian economy for a sufficient military, and as a result, he delays his timetable for Italy's conquest of lands historically belonged to the Roman Empire. Inspired by Mussolini's example, other European states are embracing Fascism and emulates Mussolini's pragmatic projects, except for Germany under Hitler, which focuses on regaining lands lost in the last war. Mussolini's neutrality also affects the Spanish Civil War because only Germany sent troops to fight alongside the Nationalists.
War breaks out between China and Japan, culminating in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Though communism is absent in other conflicts, the Bolshevik exiles with their newly created Chinese Communist Party, manage to seize the spotlight from the Nationalist government in Nanjing.
Germany marches into Habsburg Austria, and places the Habsburgs under house arrest. Russia builds up its army, and thanks to the absence of communism in Russia, the Great Purge never happened.
Germany invades Poland, starting World War Two. On the Axis side are Great Britain and its colonies(but Canada attempted to break away from the Fascist grip by negotiating with both Russia and USA), Germany and Japan(Italy remains neutral because they're not ready yet). On the Allied side are Russia, France, China, Turkey, Iran and Kurdistan. Neutral nations include Yugoslavia, Hungary, Romania and Greece.
The terms that ended World War Two were as follows:
- - Great Britain, despite their role in the Axis alliance, only loses a few colonies in mainly North America, Asia and Oceania. Australia and New Zealand are independent, and Canada also becomes independent too. However, GB has to pay reparations to Russia and the United States.
- - Germany loses the West Silesian belt to Poland, and the old East Prussian territories are partitioned between Poland and Russian Lithuania. It too must pay Russia and other occupied states with its own reparations, in addition to the Holocaust, which claimed the lives of seven million Jews in all of Axis-occupied Europe and the South Pacific.
- - Japan loses its overseas colonies except for Taiwan. It has to pay an indemnity to Russia and the United States, as well as China. However, the Japanese refused to pay their reparations to the Allied powers because of a shift in government. Russia regains South Sakhalin.
1946-1991: Cold War Era
The Kuomintang suffers defeat at the Battle of Guangzhou and retreats to Taiwan. The new Chinese Communist government comes to power with the promise of restoring western China and Manchuria to their rule, but an uprising in Mongol-dominated areas of China plagues the new government, seeking to reunify with their compatriots in Outer Mongolia.
Japan begins its secret operation to grab their loot from the former conquered territories in an attempt to regain their economy. Despite American aid, the Japanese look at the Americans with suspicion and the Russians with contempt. America and Russia begin their Cold War when the Russian government attempted to co-opt Australia and New Zealand into their alliance, much to the Anericans' irritation. In addition, the de-Nazification and de-militarisation policies of Germany and Japan respectively have been curtailed(though the Russians launched their said policies far more aggressively). Within a few years, Japan has regained its economical advantage. Communist China on the other hand, barely survives its first uprising when neighboring Mongolia sent its troops to capture their 'lost' territory.
Russia, America and Japan arm the Kuomintang government based in Taiwan with modern weaponry. They launch an invasion of Communist mainland China and quickly seizes control of the ports. Mao calls for guerrilla warfare, but Chiang forstalls him by showing the examples of Communist atrocities to the peasants, resulting in the eventual collapse of Communist power in Nanjing.
Japan and America sign an alliance to deter Russia from attaining supreme control of the entire Pacific. In addition, Russian migrants move towards Alaska and Oceania. The dual alliance is denounced in Moscow as another attempt by the Nazis to destroy the Russian homeland. The Cold War now has two armed camps: the Eurasianists, which consists of Russia(plus the Russian South Pacific), Poland, Yugoslavia, Romania, Greece, Turkey, Iran, all Arab states, Hungary, Germany, Korea and Finland. The Atlantic-Pacific Faction consists of the United States, Japan, Great Britain, France and Mexico. All former British Commonwealth nations are neutral, but the remaining colonies have risen in revolt. Italy later joins the Eurasian camp, at the cost of Mussolini's fall. French Indochina rises in revolt once France made it clear that they won't abandon their colonies in South East Asia, triggering a naval exercise in the Russian South Pacific.
Since there was no Stalinism in this timeline, the Hungarian Uprising never occured. Instead, the Suez Crisis grows even hotter as both camps manufacture nuclear weapons at an alarming rate. Israel joins the Atlantic-Pacific Faction, which also brings the rest of the Arab states into the Eurasian camp, even Arab states in Africa.
Gary Powers is shot down over Russia in a spy mission. Japan slides back into fascism, despite American alarm but couldn't do anything about it since it is an ally. With the resurgence of Japanese fascism, Australia and New Zealand contemplate joining the Russian-led Eurasian camp.
Japan defiantly seizes the Liancourt Islands from Korea. The Korean government demands the return of the islands, which Japan refuses to do. In America, John F. Kennedy watches with concern as the rise of George Lincoln Rockwell could be a devastating factor for American politics. Germany disapproves of the Rockwell movement, with its enforcement of the ban on Nazi literature. Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark join the Eurasian camp, but Spain and Portugal joins the APF.
JFK is assassinated in Dallas. Rockwell seizes this event to attract disgruntled citizens towards his movement, but faces stiff opposition from Jews and other victims of the Holocaust. Rockwell's Nazi Party barely gains any popularity at all, but could change its luck. The UN General Assembly votes in favor of imposing the Russian-dominated Special Constitutional Overrule Clause, designed to specifically stamp out hate speech around the world. Even the member states of the APF except for the US and Japan vote in favor of the said Clause.
Skokie vs George Lincoln Rockwell case goes into court. Rockwell enacts his First Amendment to spread his extremist views, and it resulted in a victory for the first neo-Nazi leader. This is mainly due to the United States' refusal to ratify the UN Special Constitutional Overrule Clause, claiming it's unconstitutional. Furthermore, Rockwell accuses the UN of catering to the Eurasianists' interests at the expense of the 'free country'. Anti-Rockwell factions within the American Nazi Party begin to fight the pro-Rockwell faction.
Vietnam War ends in the favor of the independence of the French Indochinese states. They promptly join the Eurasian camp. China is the only major power that is still neutral. Poland is the second nation to condemn the Rockwell movement. (The first nation to condemn his movement was Germany)
George Lincoln Rockwell survives an assassination attempt made by one of his members. He survives long enough for him to be elected governor of Virginia. HIs eventual goal is to be elected as President of the United States. As for what he will do with Japan once he becomes president is unknown, though he would allocate Japan a special role in destroying the Russian juggernaut in the Pacific. Alaskans begin to talk of secession or reunification with Russia in response to Rockwell's election as governor. (Though a few Americans who emigrated to Alaska are notoriously anti-Nazi)
Rockwell is elected as the President of the United States. He begins his purge against the government of undesirables. Jews who are fearful of what happened in Germany, emigrated to Israel. Israel itself withdraws from the APF and becomes neutral because joining the Eurasian camp would only make things worse with the Arab states.
Alaskans begin to campaign for secession from the United States in response to Rockwell's reforms that discriminate Jews and other minorities around the rest of the US. Meanwhile, Russia and Japan have their first post-war skirmish outside the Kuril Islands.
The USA launches a war against the Russian South Pacific nation of Maharlika, determined to capture the nation and steer it towards the APF. The war would also drag Russia and China into the conflict as the American occupation of Maharlika would result in the US attacks on mainland China and Russia (with Japan's help)
Rockwell removes the limits of how much he can serve as US president. Many people begin to question his motives as his authoritarian rule begins to show some strains in US domestic life.
A pro-American coup in Manila is successful, deposing the pro-Russian government there. However, the coup fizzles when pro-Russian Maharlikan soldiers loyal to Russian South Pacific Governor Boris Yeltsin seizes the RSP White House from the pro-American faction. The protesters are shot to death by vengeful pro-Russian Maharlikan soldiers as punishment for siding with the USA.
The US war in Maharlika ends in the US defeat as they were defeated in the last battle at Laoag by a combination of Australian and Maharlikan soldiers. Many nations within the APF begin to withdraw their membership from the alliance, leaving the US and Japan as the sole members.
A coup in Russia deposes the democratically elected government of Mikhail Gorbachev and Vladimir Zhirinovsky becomes president. Many nations within the Eurasian faction begin to withdraw their membership from the alliance, imitating the collapse of the APF. Now only Russia and China are the only ones left, pitted against the US and Japan.
Rockwell is assassinated by a member of the Black Panthers while he was addressing a rally. Despite the heavy security, he was assassinated mainly because the guards were actually anti-Nazi spies masquerading as Nazi guards. The USA returns to democracy while Russia has a new Tsarist Revival Movement.