• 10 January, 1850 - Dom Pedro Afonso, heir to the throne of Brazil, survives his bout of fever at his family's estate at Petrópolis. As a result he continues to walk in the footsteps of his father Pedro II, who does not begin to reject the monarchy as an institution and train his son to uphold the mantle once he takes the throne. 


  • 13 March, 1870 - Dom Ferdinand II, the previous King of Portugal and father of the current king Luíz I, takes the throne of Spain following its revolution. The concerns of Ferdinand and his government were assuaged by British and French support.
  • 1 September, 1870 - Prussian forces defeat the French at the Battle of Sedan, ending the Second French Empire. Napoleon III flees to exile in Britain while a republican government is declared. 
  • 18 January, 1871 - The German Empire is declared in the palace of Versailles, completing German unification. 
  • 8 February, 1871 - Pro-Monarchist forces win the majority of the legislative elections in France. They soon agree to a compromise on which royal candidate takes the throne, but faces opposition from the Comte de Chambord and the republican factions. 
  • 19 February, 1871 - The Comte de Chambord agrees to a compromise regarding the flag of France and his own personal standard and thus takes the thone of France as Henry V. 
  • 21 April, 1872 - Outbreak of the Third Carlist War in Spain, pitting the Liberal government and Portugal against the Carlists. 
  • 20 January, 1875 - Conclusion of the Third Carlist War with a Liberal victory. Carlist pretenders are exiled to France. 
  • 20 February, 1876 - Republicans and liberals gain the majority in French legislative elections. They vow to halt any of Henry V's semi-authoritarian ideals. 


  • 24 August, 1883 - Henry V of France dies, leaving the throne to his more liberal heir and cousin, who takes the throne as Louis-Phillippe II. Constitutional changes follow, liberalizing the system further.
  • 15 December, 1885 - King Ferdinand VIII of Spain dies a natural death, leaving the throne to his son Luíz I of Portugal. He titles himself as Emperor of Iberia so as to not be outranked by his relatives in Brazil.
  • 13 May, 1888 - The Brazilian parliament passes the Golden Law, which is signed by Dom Pedro Alfonso, abolishing slavery in Brazil. The upper classes and slaveholders are outraged. 
  • 15 November, 1889 - Republican and military opposition to the monarchy launch a coup in the streets of Rio de Janeiro. The Imperial government resists, starting the Brazilian Civil War.


  • 6 March, 1890 - The final Republican holdouts in the Brazilian Civil War surrender, ending the conflict.

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