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- The Austrian Empire is defeated in the Second Italian War of Independence, thus resulting in a Franco-Sardinian win.
- Victor Emmanuel II does not sign the Armistice.
- The plebiscites in Modena and Parma are against the annexion by the Kingdom of Sardinia, preventing it from creating a Central Italian League.
- Nice and Savoy do not pass under French control.
- Sardinia does not annex Modena, Romagna, Tuscany and Central Italy, thus resulting in a shattered Italy.
- The Modenese fleet, helped by the German one, reaches Papua and colonizes it, thus extending the Duke's title from Duke of Modena to Duke of Modena and Governor of Papua.
- The Umbrian Revolution overthrows Giuseppe Bastianini and establishes a socialist state.
- The Japanese Regence in Korea ends.
- The Korean War is put on end, thus resulting in a division of the peninsula between North and South.
- Aldo Moro, Prime Minister of South Italy, is kidnapped and later killed. Responsibility goes to the terroristic group Brigate Rosse.
- Slobodan Milošević is killed by Croatian nationalists.
- Croatia annexes the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- Serbia annexes the Republika Srpska.