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Under Thutmosis III, Egypt had reached it's maximum splendour. Thutmosis III was one of the greatest Pharaohs of Egyptian history. He campaigned into Syria, Palestine and Nubia, and even trespassed the Mitanni kingdom, weakening it considerably in favour of the Egyptians, Babylonians and Hittites. He died in 1425 B.C, 54 years into his reign, when he was planning another campaign into Nubia. What if that hadn't happened, and he had died in 1400 B.C, 79 years into his reign?
Thutmosis' Nubian Campaigns
Thutmosis led a Nubian campaign in 1429, defeating the Kingdom of Kerma all the way into the Egyptianized Fourth Cataract of the Nile. He was weakened by a sickness on the campaign, and had to return to Thebes. However, the sickness didn't kill him, and in 1423 he led another campaign into Kerma. The Nubian army resisted the Egyptian advance, attacking the army at the Battle of Abu (later Abu Symbel) in mid-1423. In the battle, the Nubians proved to be larger and much more powerful than what the Egyptians believed. The Nubians routed the Egyptian army backwards, until the Egyptians were besides the Nile River. The Egyptians tried to go west upon the other coast of the Nile, but there were other Nubian armies blocking all of the passes and bridges. Some Egyptians tried to swim to the other side, but the Nile was swollen and the Egyptians drowned. Some survived, but were killed by the Nubians as soon as they arrived at the other shore. The battle was lost by the Egyptians, and Thutmosis barely survived. Thutmosis swore to avenge all of the Egyptians who had been killed at the Battle of Abu, and with an army three times larger than the original, Thutmosis launched himself upon the Nubians. He defeated the Nubian army at the Battles of Kerma (city which was razed by the Egyptians), Napata and Meroë. Great material losses were found by both sides on the war. Egypt lost almost 200,000 men, while Nubia's capital cities, Jebel Barkal and Kerma, had burnt. However, Thutmosis' Second Nubian Campaign made the Egyptian Empire a rich kingdom, due to the gigantic amounts of gold found in South and Central Nubia. Thutmosis, now greedy for gold, took more campaigns into the Nobatians, quickly defeating them, Punt, losing almost 50,000 men on the try but conquering the gigantic kingdom, and the tribal D'mt in 1420, defeating them quickly near Yeha. These conquests brought great economical prosperity to the Egyptians.
Thutmosis became power-hungry after that. In 1419, Thutmosis takes 75,000 men to the other side of the Red Sea, and landed close to Sana'a, in Yemen. He soon took over much of Saba easily.
Thutmosis used Saba as a launching platform for his invasions. He took over Hadramawt in 1417, and Hedjaz in 1415. A campaign into Nejd was defeated by the local Bedouin armies.