Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson.PNG
2nd Vice-President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
Preceded by John Adams
Succeeded by Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
1st United States Secretary of State
In office
March 22, 1790 – December 31, 1793
President George Washington
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Edmund Randolph
United States Ministers Plenipotentiary to France
In office
May 17, 1785 – September 26, 1789
Appointed by Congress of the Confederation
Preceded by Benjamin Franklin
Succeeded by Richard Henry Lee
Governor of Virginia
In office
June 1, 1779 – June 3, 1781
Preceded by Patrick Henry
Succeeded by William Fleming
Personal details
Born January 4, 1743(1743-01-04) or
Died July 12, 1804 (aged 49 or 47)
Charlottesville, Virginia, U.S.
Political party Democratic-Republican
Spouse(s) Martha Jefferson

Martha, Jane, Mary, Lucy, Lucy Elizabeth

Children Martha
Alma mater College of William & Mary
Religion Christian deism

Thomas Jefferson (April 13 [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and the second Vice-President of the United States (1797–1801). He was an ardent proponent of democracy and embraced the principles of republicanism and the rights of the individual. At the beginning of the American Revolution, he represented Virginia in the Continental Congress, and then served as a wartime Governor of Virginia (1779–1781). In May 1785, he became the United States Minister to France and later the first United States Secretary of State, (1790–1793), serving under President George Washington. At the formation of the First Party System in 1792–1793, Jefferson and James Madison, organized the Democratic-Republican Party in opposition to Alexander Hamilton's Federalist Party. He was elected the second Vice President in 1796 in the administration of President John Adams. Jefferson secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798-1799, which attempted to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts passed by the Federalist-controlled United States Congress.

Jefferson was defeated in the election of 1801. Jefferson suffered from his Francophile attitude, which became unpopular during the Franco-American War. In addition, Hamilton's participation in the victorious conflict made him especially popular, generally to the detriment of Jefferson and his party. During the election, Jefferson was soundly defeated, and subsequently began his withdrawal from the political scene. Jefferson died in 1804, after contracting pneumonia at Monticello.