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|French Republican Wars|
1791: After the death of king Francisco I of Spain, his hot-headed grandson Francisco II became king instead. He pressured for war against France, which broke out again. This was despite the fact that this coalition was weaker than ever before. Nassau, one of the strongest German states, stayed neutral, Sweden-Norway sided with France.
1791, July: Battle of Ingolstadt. French-German armies crossed the Danube.
Sweden fought many battles against Denmark; hence, the war is often called "the third Nordic War" in Scandinavia.
The Peace of Frankfurt was made in 1793. Bavaria, Brandenburg-Silesia, Pomerania and Braunschweig (incl. Schleswig-Holstein) were turned into republics too. Denmark proper went to Sweden. Spain was occupied by France (except Galicia, which went to Portugal) and divided into the republics of Castille, Asturia and Andalusia. The Spanish royal family went to Morocco, the pope flees to Canterbury, Britain, which swore to continue the fight. This lead to a costly "perpetual war" when Britain continually tried to attack French coasts and support uprisings in Spain and Germany. Hungary has to cede the lands of the Czechs and Slovaks, which became the Moravian Republic.
The only monarchist states remaining in Western Europe now were Britain, Italy, Sweden-Norway-Denmark, Hungary, Poland, and the German states of Austria and Nassau - less than ten, for the first time.