In early 1914, tensions in the Balkans were rising, Greece and its puppet-Kingdom of Bulgaria were feeling increasing hostility toward the northern Balkans league members of Serbia & Montenegro over the fate of the weakening Principality of Albania, which was rocked by rebellion from the Muslim majority, who resented Christian rule. Prince William of Albania asked Montenegro for help in suppressing the rebellion, and 10,000 Montenegrin soldiers, led by Crown Prince Danilo were sent into Albania.
Greece saw this as a violation of the Treaty of London that had ended the Balkan War, and guaranteed Albania's neutrality in any future Balkan conflicts. So Greece sent troops into southern Albania, Prince Danilo saw he could not win against the Greek army, and retreated north.
Bulgaria and Greece exchanged declarations of war with Montenegro and Serbia while Albania declared neutrality, but could do little about the battles being fought openly on it's territory. The Greek army heading north through Albania was attacked was attacked by a Montenegrin army reinforced by Serbs and halted in it's tracks, the allied army however, failed to deliver a decisive defeat.
In Macedonia, Greek army moved north, besieging Skopje, while the much weakened Bulgarian army attacked Macedonia from the east. Montenegro now sent it's entire army of 33,000 into Albania to fight the Greeks. Prince Danilo's attack took Tirana, Prince William was killed when his palace which was being defended by Greek troops was stormed by Montenegrin soldiers. On losing Tirana, the Greeks allied to local Muslim leaders, who hated the Montenegrins for helping to put down their revolt.
During the siege, Skopje had been utterly destroyed by Greek artillery, when the the Greeks entered the city they encountered almost no resistance, as the Serbian defenders had been almost wiped out. Prince Danilo's army continued to push south in pursuit of the retreating Greek forces, but was harried by Muslim partisans allied to the Greeks. King Carol of Romania signed a deal with Serbia that if it invaded Bulgaria, it would receive Southern Dobruja.
The Greek troops rallied at Gjirokaster, while the partisans defended villages surrounding the city, the Greek soldiers provided support to their allies from Gjirokaster. Although the partisans were fierce fighters, they were no match for the Montenegrin soldiers, who overwhelmed the villages before surrounding Gjirokaster. After four days of fighting the Greeks were engaged in a fierce urban battle, the Montenegrins finally reached the city hall and the Greek commander, Panagiotis Danglis surrendered to Prince Danilo.
As the Battle of Gjirokaster drew to a close, the Romanian Army crossed the border with Bulgaria, overpowering the border guards. With nearly all of his army inextricably fighting the Serbians in Macedonia, King George realised his positon was untenable, he abdicated the Bulgarian Throne and fled to Greece. The Republic of Bulgaria was proclaimed and Greece, seeing it's only ally desert it, sued for peace.
The conditions of peace were:
- King Constantine abdicate in favour of Prince George.
- Albania become part of Montenegro, The King of Montenegro would also be Prince of Albania.
- Greece recognise the Republic of Bulgaria.
- Bulgaria receives Thessaly, but Greece would keep Constantinople as an Exclave.
Meanwhile, Civil War was springing up between rival factions in Turkey. The Islamists, who controlled the north-east of the country and were centred on the city of Trabzon, the Communists controlled the south-east and were centred on Adana, and the Secular Democrats, who controlled the west of the country and were centred on Ankara.
The war lasted from 1914 to 1920, at it's end Armenia, France, Greece and the Secular Democrats were allied against the Islamists, after the Communists had been defeated in 1917.
The War started when the Communist Party made a failed attempt to take Ankara through an insurection, the Turkish Military (fighting for the Secular Democrats) defeated the rebels, the Communist Party fled and the capital, followed by the Islamist Party.
In late 1915 Ankara was taken by the Islamist Party, Ataturk moved the capital to Izmir, until early next year, when Ankara was retaken. In 1916 The Islamists allied to the Democrats against the Communists, by 1917 the Communists had been defeated, and the war between the Democrats & the Islamists resumed. Islamist attacks on Christian Armenia provoked Armenia to declare war on them, France sent a fleet to prevent the Islamists destabilising French Syria and Greece provided help to the Democrats.
For three years the Islamists fought the Democrats and Armenians, Enver Pasha, their leader fled to Russian Central Asia and started the Basmachi Revolt. The Battle of Adana was the final battle of the Civil War, Adana was the Islamist's final stronghold, French ships blockaded the port while a combined Democrat & Armenian army surrounded the city. After the fall of Adana, Ataturk became the Republic of Turkey's first president.