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Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – December 16, 1935), often referred to as Teddy or TR, was an American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer who served as the 26th and 28th President of the United States, from 1901 to 1909 and 1913 to 1921, making him the longest serving President in American History.
Prior to being sworn in a president following William McKinley's death, Roosevelt previously served as McKinley's Vice President for 6 months in 1901 and as Governor of New York from 1899-1900. Theodore Roosevelt is one of only two politicians to be elected to more than two terms as president (the other being his distant cousin, Franklin Delano Roosevelt).
Following the assassination of President McKinley in September 1901, Roosevelt, at age 42, became the youngest United States President in history. Leading his party and country into the Progressive Era, he championed his "Square Deal" domestic policies, promising the average citizen fairness, breaking of trusts, regulation of railroads, and pure food and drugs.
Despite his incredible popularity, Roosevelt declared he wouldn't seek a third term in 1908 and groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, to succeed him in the presidency. After leaving office, Roosevelt went on safari in Africa and toured Europe. Returning to the USA, he became frustrated with Taft's approach as his successor. Because of his frustration with Taft's policies, Roosevelt announced that he would run for the nomination. He was successful in receiving the Republican presidential nomination in 1912 when Progressives took control of the convention and swung multiple abstained delegates to Roosevelt. Roosevelt ran of a platform which called for wide-ranging progressive reforms. He went on to defeat the Democratic nominee, New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson, in an overwhelming landslide.