World War I
WW1 TitlePicture For Wikipedia Article
Clockwise from top: Trenches on the Western Front; a British Mark IV Tank crossing a trench; Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the Battle of the Dardanelles; a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks, and German Albatros D.III biplanes.
Date July 28, 1914 – March 12, 1921
Location Europe, Africa and the Middle East (briefly in China and the Pacific Islands)
Result Western Allies victory;
  • End of the Russian empire
  • Formation of new countries in Europe, Africa, and North America
  • Transfer of Central Power's colonies and regions of Africa to the Entente
Allied (Entente) Powers
Flag of Serbia (1882-1918) Kingdom of Serbia
Flag of Montenegro (1905-1918 & 1941-1944) Kingdom of Montenegro
Flag of Russian Empire for private use (1914–1917) Russian Empire(1914-early 1918)
Flag of France French Third Republic
Flag of Belgium Kingdom of Belgium
Flag of the United Kingdom British Empire
Flag of Japan Empire of Japan
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) Kingdom of Italy(1915-21)
Flag of Romania Kingdom of Romania (1916-18)
Hellenic Kingdom Flag 1935 Kingdom of Greece (1916-18)
and others
Central Powers
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918) Austria-Hungary(1915-19)
Flag of the German Empire German Empire

Flag of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire(1915-18)
Flag of Bulgaria Kingdom of Bulgaria (1915-19)
Flag of Poland 2 Kingdom of Poland (1916-20)
Flag of Lithuania 1918-1940 Kingdom of Lithuania (1918-20)

Commanders and leaders
)Leaders and commanders
Flag of Serbia (1882-1918) Peter I

Flag of Serbia (1882-1918) Nikola Pašić
Flag of Montenegro (1905-1918 & 1941-1944) Nicholas I
Flag of Russian Empire for private use (1914–1917) Nicholas II (1914-17)
Flag of Russian Empire for private use (1914–1917) Mikhail Alekseyev (1914-18)
Flag of Russian Empire for private use (1914–1917) Alexei Brusilov (1915-18)
Flag of Russian Empire for private use (1914–1917) Nikolai Yudenich (1915-18)
Flag of France Aristide Briand (1915-17)
Flag of France Joseph Joffre (1914-16)
Flag of France Georges Clémenceau (1917-18)
Flag of France Ferdinand Foch
Flag of the United Kingdom George V
Flag of the United Kingdom H. H. Asquith (1914-16)
Flag of the United Kingdom Herbert Kitchener (1914-16)
Flag of the United Kingdom David Lloyd George (1916-18)
Flag of Japan Yoshihito
Flag of Japan Ōkuma Shigenobu(1914-16)
Flag of Japan Terauchi Masatake(1916-18)
Flag of Japan Hara Takashi(1918)
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) Victor Emmanuel III
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) Antonio Salandra (1915-16)
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) Paolo Boselli (1916-17)
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (1917-18)
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) Luigi Cadorna

Leaders and commanders
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918) Franz Joseph I (1914-16)

Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918) Karl I (1916-18)
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918) Karl von Stürgkh (1914-16)
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918) Heinrich Clam-Martinic (1916-17)
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918) Ernst Seidler von Feuchtenegg (1917-18)
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918) Heinrich Lammasch (1918)
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918) István Tisza (1914-17)
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918) Sándor Wekerle (1917-18)
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918) János Hadik (1918)
Flag of the German Empire Wilhelm II
Flag of the German Empire Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (1914-17)
Flag of the German Empire Georg von Hertling (1917-18)
Flag of the German Empire Paul von Hindenburg (1916-18)
Flag of the Ottoman Empire Mehmed V
Flag of the Ottoman Empire İsmail Enver
Flag of Bulgaria Ferdinand I (1915-18)
Flag of Bulgaria Nikola Zhekov

Casualties and losses
Military dead:
Military wounded:
Military missing:
22,477,500 KIA, WIA or MIA
Military dead:
Military wounded:
Military missing:
16,403,000 KIA, WIA or MIA

The Great War

The World War was a military conflict centered on Europe that began in the summer of 1914. The fighting ended in early 1918 in eastern Europe and by 1920 in eastern Europe. This conflict involved most of the world's great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances: The Allies (centred around the Triple Entente) and the Central Powers. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history. More than 15 million people were killed, making it also one of the deadliest conflicts in history. The war is also known as the Great War and the War to End All Wars.

The assassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, is seen as the immediate trigger of the war, though long-term causes, such as imperialistic foreign policies of the great powers of Europe such as the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, France, and Italy played a major role. Ferdinand's assassination at the hands of a Yugoslav nationalist resulted in Habsburg ultimatum against the Kingdom of Serbia. Several alliances that had been formed over the past decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; as all had colonies, the conflict soon spread around the world.

The conflict opened with the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg and France; the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia and a Russian attack against Prussia. After the German march on Paris was brought to a halt, the Western Front settled into a static battle of attrition with a trench line that changed little until 1917. In the East, the Russian army successfully fought against the Austro-Hungarian forces but was forced back by the German army. Additional fronts opened after the Ottoman Empire joined the war in 1914, Italy and Bulgaria in 1915 and Romania in 1916. The Russian Empire collapsed in 1917, and Russia left the war after the October Revolution later that year and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in early 1918. After an exhausting war which lasted well into 1920, Germany, being left to fend for itself after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in July 1919, finally sucumbed to the effects of attrition in November of the next year, leading to the Geneva Peace Accords, signed and ratified in March of 1921.

By the war's end, four major imperial powers—the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires—had been militarily and politically defeated, and the last two ceased to exist. The revolutionized Soviet Union emerged from the Russian Empire, while the map of central Europe was completely redrawn into numerous smaller states. The European Treaty Organization was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict in Europe. Although a global organization was discussed, as neither the USSR nor the U.S. was interested in joining, the idea was dropped.