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We all know (or should know) the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand at Sarajevo in 1914 was the immediate trigger of World War I. But imagine a world where Ferdinand survived the assassination, and rather than invading Serbia, Austria-Hungary embargoed Serbia. The Serbians, wanting to avoid a pan-European conflict, co-operated, and the embargo was lifted in 1918, ending a four year time period where it seemed like a huge war was closer then ever. The world exhaled at Sarajevo.
Welcome to a universe where the old European monarchs of the 18th and 19th century still rule strong. The British Empire continues to tighten her grip over the world, threatening war with any country that blocks her interests. Germany, which became a Republic after the German Empire collapsed in 1991, is a possible runner-up to be a global superpower. Christian fundamentalists rule what was the United States, which was severely weakened after a civil war, then coup, then revolution, then invasion by Mexico. Now, it is known as the Christian Republic of North America. Latin America is no longer anyone's "backyard". In Turkey, a violent civil war has been raging since the late 1970s. Africa is still carved into various European colonies, as well as most of the Middle East. A Communist dictatorship rules India, Australia and Canada are still British colonies, and a large "Eurasian Union" comprises of China, Russia, Central Asia, Korea, and Japan. It, too, is vying to become a superpower.
For a portal to other articles:
The remainder of this article includes the Point of Divergence (POD) and a timeline up until the present.
Point of Divergence
Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, survived an assassination attempt while touring Sarajevo, Bosnia. Bosnia had been under Austro-Hungarian control since the 1870s, and the assassin was a member of a Serbian national group called the "Black Hand" that promoted the idea of a pan-Slavic nation uniting Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Macedonia, and, Slovenia.
The Great Crisis (1914-1918)
Following the assassination attempt, Austria-Hungary embargoed Serbia. Wanting to avoid a war with Russia, Austria-Hungary did not shut down the Serbian-Romanian border, which Russia used to trade with Serbia. The Russian Tsar said what Austria-Hungary did was "disgusting", but after weeks of consideration, Tsar Nicholas II decided not to attack or make aggressive diplomatic demands against Austria-Hungary. Serbia, wanting to avoid war just like the other two states, complied with Austria-Hungary's strict terms..
At 11:00 AM on November 11th, 1918, Austria-Hungary officially lifted the embargo on Serbia. The Great Crisis, a four-year period of high tensions between European powers, had finally ended. War had been avoided. Relations between the Entente nations (the UK, France, Russia) actually improved with the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey). What made the First Great Crisis so tense was that several other wars were occurring during that time so the world was closer then ever to an enormous, global war.
Theses wars includes:
- 12th Russo-Turkish War (1915-1917)
- Mexican Civil War (1910-1920)
- German-Japanese War (1915-1916)
- Turkish Revolution (1917)
- Middle Eastern War (1925-1930)
- Chinese Civil War (1917-1922)
12th Russo-Turkish War (1915-1917)
- Russian Empire
- Ottoman Empire
The 12th Russo-Turkish War was a war between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, later including Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Greece (fighting the Third Balkan War). The wars occurred during the Great Crisis, which involved a series of proxy wars between the Central and Entente powers. For instance, Russia was backed by the UK and France, while Turkey was backed by Germany and Austria-Hungary. The 12th Russo-Turkish War extended from the Caucases to the Eastern Anatolia reaching as far as Trabzon, Bitlis, Mus, and Van.
On February 23, 1917, the Russian advance picked up momentum, and peace talks began in Bucuretsi, Romania. As the 12th Russo-Turkish war was ending, the Ottoman Revolution was beginning - parts of the Ottoman Empire were declaring independence from it. The Ottomans initially rejected the proposed treated by Russia, in which Russia would have complete control of Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kurdistan, and the eastern half of Anatolia - divided by a line connecting the Mediterranean and Black seas at their closest point. But during a 20-day period where the negotiations dragged on and Turkey bid for better terms, the Russian army advanced and countered virtually no resistance, as the Ottoman military forces were destroyed and local police were overstretched.
The war ended in September 14th, 1918, when the Turks finally agreed to the Russian-proposed Treaty of Bucuresti.
Mexican Civil War (1910-1920)
All of the Factions:
- Constitutionalists (in control 1914-1920)
- Felicistas (never gained control)
- Hueristas (in control 1913-1914)
- Maderistas (in control 1910-1911)
- Magonistas (never in control)
- Orozquistas (anarchists who never gained control)
- Porifiristas (in power before the first revolution starting the war, from 1884 to 1911.
- Reyistas (socialist rebels who never gained power).
- Villistas (nationalist supporters of Pancho Villa, opposing all other governments).
- Zapatistas (agrarian rebels who never gained power)
The Mexican Civil War was a major armed struggle that started in 1910, with an uprising led by Francisco Maedro against longtime autocrat Porfirio Diaz. The war was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist, populist, and conservative movements. After the revolution against Diaz ended in late 1911, a power gap quickly developed, and a multi-sided civil war lasted until 1920.
After prolonged struggles, its representatives produced the Mexican Constitution of 1917. The Revolution is generally considered to have lasted until 1920, although the country continued to have sporadic, but comparatively minor, outbreaks of warfare well into the 1920s. The Cristero Civil War of 1926 to 1929 was the most significant relapse of bloodshed.
The Mexican Civil War triggered the creation of the Mexican Constitutional Party in 1929 (renamed the Institutional Revolutionary Party, or MCP, in 1946). Under a variety of leaders, the MCP held power until the general election of 2000.
German-Japanese War (1914-1915)
The German-Japanese war was a war between Germany and Japan over Germany's sphere of influence in China. The war was generally fought on a small scale- the only major battle was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China. The war was a proxy war during the Great Crisis, for Japan was backed by Britain and Russia, while Germany was backed by Austria-Hungary.
After the Battle of Tsingtao, German forces were constantly retreating from their colonies in Beijing, Melekeok, Saipan, Samoa, Nauru, and Micronesia. When Beijing fell in mid-1915, the Germans fled their Pacific subjects as the Japanese moved in to occupy them. The Germans lost their "sphere of influence" , centered around Beijing, in China- which was divided between the colonial powers of Japan, Russia, and Britain. Japan became more powerful when it acquired Germany's Pacific colonies, and controlling colonies as far south as Samoa meant Japan could extend naval power deep into the central and southwest Pacific.
Ottoman Revolution (1918-1922)
The Ottoman revolution was a revolution against the Ottoman Empire by the various regions composed of it, including Turkey, Armenia, Palestine, Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Arabia. The Ottoman Empire was at war with Russia, and the revolutions caused the Russians to be victorious in the war. The revolutions were successful, and the Ottoman Empire collapsed on October 30th, 1918.
Middle Eastern War (1918-1922)
- Islamic Arabians
- United Kingdom
- Saudi Arabians
After the Ottoman Revolution, several governing bodies in the Middle East were established, but they all were unstable. Britain and France, having oil interests in the region, intervened. Palestine was the most chaotic of all, as Zionist Jews and Arabs fought over for control. Anarchy reigned in Syria. To restore order, Great Britain invaded Palestine and Transjordan from Egypt, and France launched a seaborne invasion of Syria and Lebanon. Only when the British-French invaded did the peoples of this area unite and establish a formal government against what they saw as a "Second Crusade". Meanwhile, in late 1919, Greece and Armenia formed an alliance and invaded Turkey from two different sides, but the Turkish fought off these attacks very well, and also dealt with the French in the south near Syria. Russian forces mobilized in the chunk of Turkey it had occupied since the earlier year, but Turkey, knowing it couldn't handle four fronts, left the Russians alone. On the Arabian peninsula, what looked like a civil war was raging between "Islamic Arabians", or Arabians that wanted to establish a religious dictatorship, or "Saudi Arabians", a pro-western party that wanted to establish a monarchy. With British support, the Saudi Arabians won and established- you guessed it! - Saudi Arabia.
The Treaty of Amman in early 1922 ended the Middle Eastern War. The Treaty stated that Palestine, Jordan and Iraq would come under British rule. Cyprus, Syria and Lebanon would come under French rule. Saudi Arabia would have total sovereignty on the Arabian Peninsula, and Persia's borders in the East would not be tweaked in any way. The Greek-Turkish border would be restored to pre-Ottoman Revolution conditions, and a UN buffer zone would keep the Turkish-Armenian and Turkish-Russian borders at ease. For the most part, the Middle East will stay this or similar to this way up until the present.
Chinese Civil War (1911-1930)
- Republic of China (official Chinese government throughout the civil war).
- Chinese Communist Rebels
- People's Army
- People's Republic of China
- Regional Warlords
- Regional Warlords
The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China, that began with the Chinese Revolution in 1911-1912 and ended with the Communist take-over and the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1930. After the collapse of the Qing Empire in 1911, the Republic of China was created on the first day of 1912. Even though fighting was small and quiet in the first five years of the war, rebellions and insurgencies still occurred in parts of China. Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang was proclaimed provisional president of the new republic. However, the presidency was later awarded to Yuan Shikai, a former Qing general who ensured the defection of his entire army from the Qing forces to the revolutionaries. In 1915, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China and tried to strengthen the new government, but when he died of Uremia in 1916 (being already unpopular with the Chinese republic), China descended into chaos.
Yuan Shikai died in 1916, and the weak government quickly lost control of most of the country- which led to the rise of wardlordism and anarchy. In 922, China's new leader, Chiang Kai-shek, declared war on the warlords and regional militants and sought to unify his country. In 1925 Kai-shek was victorious, but his victory was also thanks to the Communist Party, which had led huge revolts against wealthy warlords and helped the Republic turn them in. But Mao Zedong, leader of the Communists, wanted to push farther and establish a Communist regime in China. Communism was the only economic system popular with the Chinese people. In 1926, just as the last warlord was defeated in Manchuria, total war between the Communist rebels and the Kai-shek's republic erupted. For four-years, with their large, modern "People's Army" advancing southward from the main Communist base in the North, and with rebellions against government facilities everywhere else. By 1950, Kai-shek and the Republican government were surrounded in Tibet, where with the help of Tibetan rebels, they were destroyed. The Chinese Civil War officially ended on October 1st, 1930, when Mao Zedong officially established the People's Republic of China, a Communist state.
The 1920s was the decade that started on January 1, 1920 and ended on December 31, 1929. It is sometimes referred to as the Roaring Twenties, when speaking about the United States, Canada or the United Kingdom. In Europe the decade is sometimes referred to as the "Golden Twenties" because of the economic boom following the Great Crisis.
However, not all countries enjoyed this prosperity. Russia had to face a severe economic downturn in the opening years of the decade. The crisis would culminate with a devaluation of the Ruble in 1923, eventually leading to severe economic problems and, in the long term, favour the rise of the People's Liberation Party (PLP). European imperialism increased as well, and as a result, anti-imperialistic nations created the Anti-Imperial Alliance, composed of Japan, Persia, Afghanistan, Mongolia, and Thailand.
Additionally, the decade was characterized by the rise of radical political movements. Populism began attracting large numbers of followers following their political success in Russia, as well as determination to win the Chinese Civil War, which lasted throughout the second half of the 1920s. In 1929, the Communists were successful, and the nationalists fled to Taiwan. The Populists would eventually adopt a policy of mixed economics. The 1920s marked the first time in the United States that the population in the cities surpassed the population of rural areas. This was due to rapid urbanization starting in the 1920s.
Besides Russia, the United States was another modern nation that didn't enjoy economic prosperity during the thirties. The American economy would go from stable to poor during the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
The 1930s was the decade that started on January 1, 1930 and ended on December 31, 1939. It was the fourth decade of the 20th century. It is sometimes referred to as the Black Thirties.
After the largest stock market crash in America's history, much of the decade was in an economic downfall, called the Grand Depression that had a traumatic effect in the United States, but didn't effect much of the rest of the world. The constant civil unrest in Asia gave rise to Populist regimes emerged in several countries in Asia, in particular the Soviet Republic of Russia. A huge shift in world power occurred in 1935, a year which saw the consolidation of the Anti-Imperial Alliance, Soviet Republic of Russia, and Communist China into one single confederation - the People's Union. The People's Union advocated the end of European imperialism and a global Communist revolution, and this ultimately led to the Global War by the decade's end.
The decade also saw a proliferation in new technologies, including intercontinental aviation and radio.
Global War (1939 to 1945)
Factions Allied Coalition
- New Zealand
- United Kingdom (and colonies)
- South Africa
- People's Congress
- People's Union Military Authority (PUMA)
- Japanese Empire (as well as puppet states in Korea, Manchuria, Vietnam, and Burma)
- People's Republic of China
The Global War, was a global military conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945 which involved most of the world's nations, including all of the great powers, organised into two opposing military alliances: the Allied Coalition and the People's Union. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilised. In a state of "total war", the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by significant action against civilians, including the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare, it was the deadliest conflict in human history and it has been estimated that it resulted in fifty to seventy million deaths.
The war is generally accepted to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Romania by the People's Union and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France, Italy and most of the countries of the British Empire and Commonwealth. Other countries that were not initially involved joined the war later in response to events such as the PUMA attack on Germany and the Japanese attacks on European colonies in the Pacific, Asia and Oceania.
The war ended with the total victory of the Allied Coalition over the People's Union in 1945. World War II left the political alignment and social structure of the world significantly changed. While the Congress of Europe was established to foster international cooperation and prevent future conflicts, the British Empire and the German Empire emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Peaceful War, which lasted for the next forty-six years. European attitudes towards imperialism remained the same, and most of the powers of western Europe gained even more colonies, while the Eurasian Union was established in the areas which had once been the People's Union, and the Eurasian Union made a spectacular long-term recovery, with the Eastern Federation having the third most powerful economy in the world today.
During the 1910s, 1920s and 1930s, the global political gap between Left and right widened greatly. Communism was popular in Russia, China, parts of Southeast and Southwest Asia, and even slightly in Japan. During the Great Crisis, Central and western European nations dismissed any socialist-like reform and developed an anti-Communist foreign policy. European nations wanted to destroy Communist bodies in eastern Asia and Russia, while the Communist movements and later powers wanted to rid the world of the European "empires" and establish a global Communist state.
The Kuo ming tang (KMT) party in China launched a unification campaign against regional warlords and nominally unified China in the mid-1920s, but was soon embroiled in a civil war against its former Chinese Communist allies. In 1929, the Chinese Communists won the civil war, and the People's Republic of China was established that year. In 1931, following the Third Anglo-Afghan war which ended as a stalemate, and the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, the nations of Afghanistan, Persia, Japan, China, Thailand, and Mongolia all joined the new Anti-Imperial Alliance. These nations were all against European imperialism.
Vladimir Lenin, after an unsuccessful coup in 1923, seized control of Russia in a second coup in which Communist forces marched on Moscow. Lenin gained total power in Russia the following year. He abolished democracy, espousing a radical, radically motivated revision of the world order, and soon began a massive rearmament campaign.
In 1935, a political event occurred that changed global geopolitics dramatically. The Soviet Union, Japanese Empire, and members of the Anti-Imperial Alliance all merged into a single confederation: The People's Union. This consolidation of power in the Eastern world benefited all of its members. Japan had access to Chinese and Russian natural resources, China had access to Russian and Japanese military protection, and Russia had allies in the future "crusade against Europe" it was planning. Japan did not become Communist under this consolidation, but several forms of Japanese government changed and socialist aspects were incorporated. A similar scenario occurred with the third-world members of the Anti-Imperial Alliance.
In September, 1935 Hoping to contain the People's Union, the United Kingdom, France, and Italy formed the Toulouse Front, signed in Toulouse, France. Germany and Britain formed the Anglo-German Pact, but as Great Crisis-era tensions heated up between Britain and Germany, this pact was only a diplomatic stunt and had no real effect on geopolitics. In October, Italy invaded Ethiopia, with the People's Union the only nation objecting to the invasion. Ethiopia attempted joined the People's Union, but with the People's Congress feeling not prepared for a war with Italy (possibly leading to a war with Britain, France, and/or Italy), the People's Union declined the proposal. Ethiopia would be invited to join once again in early 1939, but this time, Ethiopia would refuse.
PUMA forces militarized Russia's western regions bordering Germany and Austria-Hungary in March 1936. Lenin received little response from other European powers. When the Spanish Civil War broke out in July, the British, French, and Italian governments supported Generalissimo Francisco Franco's nationalist forces in his civil war against the PU-supported Republic of Spain. Both sides used the conflict to test new weapons and methods of warfare, and the nationalists won the war in early 1939.
In 1938, the People's Union began pressing claims on territorial rights in the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. These nations, fearing an invasion by PUMA, formed the Baltic States Union on Christmas, 1938. In early 1939, the People's Union demanded control of these nations. During the Volgograd Conference, Britain, France, Italy, Spain, and Germany all jointly agreed to the wishes of the People's Union, and conceded Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania to PUMA forces. The Baltic States Union was furious, and declared war on all of the nations represented at the Munich Conference. No war existed though - PUMA forces quickly moved in to the Baltic States, which were annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940.
Also at the Volgograd Conference, the western European governments agreed that the People's Union could only keep the Baltic states if they didn't make any more territorial demands in eastern Europe. Only a month after the conference, though, the People's Union declared it had the right to Romania's eastern provinces. With war looming, the Volgograd Conference met once again, and western Europe this time guaranteed Romania's independence. They stated that if PUMA forces attack Romania, the Allies would declare war on the People's Union.
On September 1st, the People's Union invaded Romania. Because of the deal they made with Romania, the Allies had no choice, and two days later declared war on the People's Union. The Global War was about to begin.
The War Begins
On 1 September 1939 the People's Union — a client state in 1939 — attacked Romania. On 3 September 1939 after the PUMA failed to withdraw in accordance with French and British demands, France and Britain, followed by the countries of the British Commonwealth, declared war on every member of the People's Union. They provided little military support to Romania other than a small British bombing of Petrograd. On 17 September 1939 after signing a non-aggression pact with the Germany, Austria-Hungary launched its own invasion of Romania. By early October, Romania was divided among the People's Union, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria. At the same time as the battle in Romania, PUMA forces launched an invasion of India to divert British forces from the European front. PUMA forces, mostly Chinese on the South Asian Front, were repelled back across the Indian-PU border.
Following the invasion of Romania and a treaty signed by eastern European nations governing Bulgaria, the Germany forced Austria-Hungary to allow it to station German troops. Germany was preparing for a war with the People's Union. Meanwhile, Denmark rejected territorial demands and was invaded by Germany in November 1939. The resulting conflict ended in March 1940 with Denmark giving Germany the islands of Romo, Mando and Fano. France and the United Kingdom, treating the German attack on Denmark as tantamount to entering the war on the side of the People's Union, responded to the German invasion by supporting Germany's expulsion from the European Alliance. In June 1940, Germany invaded weak and overstretched Austria-Hungary. The short "Central European War " with Germany and Romania against Austria-Hungary and Denmark came to a close.
In April 1940, PUMA forces invaded Finland, Sweden, and Norway to gain a platform for an invasion of Great Britain. Finland and Sweden immediately capitulated, and despite Allied support, Norway was conquered within two months. British discontent over the "Northern Campaign" led to the replacement of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain by Winston Churchill on May 10th 1940.
The 1940s was the decade that started on January 1, 1940 and ended on December 31, 1949.
The Global War took place in the first half of the decade, which had a profound effect on most countries and people in Europe, Asia and elsewhere. The consequences of the war lingered well into the second half of the decade, with a war-weary Asia divided between the jostling spheres of influence - Britain, France and Italy against Germany and Austria-Hungary. To some degree internal and external tensions in the post-war era were managed by new institutions, including the European League and the welfare state, providing to the post-Global War boom which lasted well into the 1970s. The decade also saw the early beginnings of new technologies (including computers, nuclear power and jet propulsion), often first developed in tandem with the war effort, and later adapted and improved upon in the post-war era.
The 1950s was the decade that began on January 1, 1950 and ended on December 31, 1959.
The decade was the sixth decade of the 20th century. By its end, the world had largely recovered from the Global War and the raging Phoney War developed from its modest beginning in the late 1940s to a hot competition between the British Empire and the German Empire by the beginning of the 1960s.
Clashes between democracies and monarchies dominated the decade, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. The conflicts included the Kazakhstan Civil War and the beginning of the Race into Space with the launch of Frederick I, the world's first space craft. Along with increased testing of nuclear weapons, this created a politically conservative climate. The decade was also highly materialistic in the western world.
A coup occurred in 1952 overthrowing the democratic coalition government of the United States created after the Second American War, and installed dictator Richard Nixon.
In the United Kingdom, Kaiser Syndrome developed, which was a popular term used to describe the fear of a nuclear war with Germany or a German invasion. Britain and Germany were now rivals on, not only a regional, but a global scale, and even though they never went to war directly, they fought proxy wars such as the Kazakh Civil War. Conformity and conservatism characterized the social mores of the time.
The 1960s was the decade that started on January 1, 1960, and ended on December 31, 1969. It was the seventh decade of the 20th century.
The 1960s term also refers to an era more often called "The Sixties", denoting the complex of inter-related cultural and political trends in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Argentina, Brazil, Spain, Italy, France, Yugoslavia, Australia, the Eurasian Union, Austria-Hungary, and others. This "cultural decade" is a bit later than the actual decade, beginning around 1963 and ending around 1972.
In the United Kingdom, "The Sixties", as they are known in popular culture, is a term used by historians, journalists, and other objective academics; in some cases nostalgically to describe the counter culture and social revolution near the end of the decade; and pejoratively to describe the era as one of irresponsible excess and flamboyance.
The 1970s, pronounced "the Nineteen Seventies", was the decade that started on January 1, 1970, and ended on December 31, 1979.
In the United Kingdom, social progressive values that began in the 1960s, such as increasing political awareness and political and economic liberty of women, continued to grow. The hippie culture, which started in the latter half of the 1960s, waned by the early 1970s and faded towards the middle part of the decade, which involved opposition to the Indian War, opposition to nuclear weapons, the advocacy of world peace, and hostility to the authority of government and big business. Oil-bearing nations of Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, and Colombia launched an embargo in the mid-1970s, hurting the western European economy. Great Britain, France, and Italy could not attack Latin American nations in revenge because they were tied up in wars in India, Vietnam, and Ethiopia.
The economy of the Eurasian Union witnessed a large boom in this period. The United Kingdom withdrew its military forces from their previous involvement in the Indian War which had grown enormously unpopular. India was finally granted independence. In 1979, Germany invaded Turkey which led to an ongoing war for ten years.
Political tensions in the United States exploded with the Second American Revolution which overthrew the Nixon dictatorship and established a Christian Republic of North America (the CRNA).
The economies of much of the developing world continued to make steady progress in the early 1970s, because of the green revolution. They might have thrived and become stable in the way that Russia and Asia recovered after the Global War; however, their economic growth was slowed by the oil crisis in Latin America but boomed immediately after.
The 1980s, often called "the Eighties", was the decade that began on January 1, 1980 and ended on December 31, 1989 and was the ninth decade of the 20th century.
The time period saw social, economic, and general change as wealth and production migrated to newly industrializing economies. As economic liberalization increased in the developed world, multiple multinational corporations associated with the manufacturing industry relocated into European colonies, particularly Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, Ireland, South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, and new market economies in Eastern Europe following the collapse of monarchism there.
The Eurasian Union was the most notable developed country that continued to enjoy rapid economic growth during the decade, whilst western European nations, particularly the United Kingdom and France re-adopted laissez-faire economic policies.
Developing countries across the world faced economic and social difficulties as they suffered from multiple debt crises in the 1980s, requiring many of these countries to apply for financial assistance from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Following the Italian withdrawal from Ethiopia in 1982, the country witnessed widespread famine.
Major civil discontent and violence occurred in the Middle East, as nationalists, reformers, and radical Muslims united on a front of independence from European colonization. Turkish rebels fought against a German occupation of Turkey. Syrian rebels waged war against France over French rule of Syria. Sectarian violence occurred in British-ruled Palestine between Jews and Muslims. The beginnings of revolutions occurred in Iraq, Jordan, and Egypt.
In North America, the Mexican-American war occurred in North America when Mexico invaded the young Christian Republic of North America in 1980. Throughout the 1980s, the two sides fought a war of attrition in the southwest CRNA. The CRNA won in 1988, repelling the Mexican invasion at a great cost.
In Eastern Europe, hostility to monarchism and the failing economy of Germany resulted in a wave of reformist policies by monarchial regimes such as the policies of "Changing Times" in Germany, along with other overthrows and attempted overthrows of a number of German satellite states, such as in Poland, Hungary, Romania, and Czechoslovakia. By 1989, with the disintegration of the Budapest Pack, Germany announced the abandonment of political hostility towards Great Britain and France, thus, the Phoney War ended. These changes continued to be felt in the 1990s and into the 21st century.
The 1990s, also known as "the Nineteen Nineties" or abbreviated as "the Nineties" or "the '90s", was the decade that started on January 1, 1990 and ended on December 31, 1999. It was the last full decade of both the 20th century and the 2nd millennium.
A combination of factors including the mass mobilization of capital markets through neo-liberalism, the beginning of the widespread proliferation of new media such as the Internet, and the collapse of the German Empire led to a realignment and reconsolidation of economic and political power across the world, and within countries. Living standards and democratic governance generally improved in many areas of the world, notably South Asia, much of Eastern Europe, Latin America, and South Africa. Ethnic wars occurred in the Caucuses and the
Balkans, and signs of any resolution of tensions in the Middle East and North America remained elusive.
The 2000s was the previous decade that started on January 1, 2000 and ended on December 31, 2009. It was the decade in which the 21st century began, with 2000 a part of the 20th century and 2001-2009 part of the 21st century.
Globalization, which had intensified in the post-Phoney War 1990s, continued to influence the world in the 2000s. The internet is one of the prime contributors to globalization, making it able for people to interact with other people, express ideas, and use goods and services, along with travel the world without even leaving the computer. The institutions, linkages and technologies that emerged or were redefined earlier would subsequently in this decade benefit many countries, in particular India and Indonesia. However, in other parts of the world such progress failed to address ongoing struggles with modernity, most notably characterized by the re-formation of the Anti-Imperial Alliance and demands for independence in European-ruled colonies. In September, 2001, members of the Anti-Imperial Alliance as well as nationalists around the world attacked the various colonies of the British Empire. This led to the United Kingdom, France, and other nations invading and occupying Turkey and Mexico, as well as implementing various anti-terrorist measures at home and abroad in what was known as the War on Independence.
Meanwhile, members of the Eurasian Union saw further integration and expansion. The economic growth of the 2000s, while responsible for lifting millions out of poverty, also had considerable environmental consequences, raised demand for diminishing energy resources, and was still shown to be vulnerable as demonstrated during the Global Financial Crisis of the late 2000s.
Articles made or to be made.
- The Global War
- The War on Independence
- The Greek-Yugoslav War