Part I: The Victorious Empire
The war began over the ascension of a candidate from the Sigmaringen branch of the Hohenzollern royal family to the vacant Spanish throne as Isabella II had abdicated in 1868. This was strongly opposed by France who issued an ultimatum to King Wilhelm I of Prussia to have the candidacy withdrawn, which was done. Aiming to humiliate Prussia, Emperor Napoleon III of France then required Wilhelm to apologize and renounce any possible further Hohenzollern candidature to the Spanish throne. King Wilhelm, surprised at his holiday resort by the French ambassador, denied the French request. Prussia's Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, edited the King's account of his meeting with the French ambassador to make the encounter more heated than it really was. Known as the Ems Dispatch, it was released to the press. It was designed to give the French the impression that King Wilhelm I had insulted the French Count Benedetti, and to give the German people the impression that the Count had insulted the King. It succeeded in both of its aims. Wikipedia
How the French Could have Won
The Franco-Prussian War is a small war that most people know nothing or little about. However, a different outcome would have changed world history forever. The French were defeated by Prussia. Many think of Prussia as the great military power and later the symbol of Wilhelmine Germany. However, in 1870, the French had all odds on their side to achieve victory. The French Army comprised approximately 400,000 regular soldiers, some veterans of previous French campaigns in the Crimean War, Algeria, Second Italian War of Independence, and in Mexico supporting the Second Mexican Empire. The infantry were equipped with the breech-loading Chassepot rifle, one of the most modern mass-produced firearms in the world at the time. With a rubber ring seal and a smaller bullet, the Chassepot had a maximum effective range of some 750 yards (685 meters) with a rapid reload time. The artillery was equipped with rifled, muzzle-loaded Lahitte '4-pounder' (actual weight of shot: 4 kg / 8.4l lb) guns. In addition, the army was equipped with the precursor to the machine-gun — the mitrailleuse, which was mounted on an artillery gun carriage and grouped in batteries in a similar fashion to cannon. On the other side, the Prussian Army was composed not of regulars but reserves. Service was compulsory for all men of military age, thus Prussia and its North and South German allies could mobilize and field some 1.2 million soldiers in time of war, which it did within 18 days of mobilization. The sheer number of soldiers available made mass-encirclement and destruction of enemy formations advantageous. The army was still equipped with the "needle-gun" Dreyse rifle of fame from the Battle of Königgrätz which was by this time showing the age of its 25 year old design. The French had the technological advantage, but the Prussians detained the strategical advantage. The Prussians were led by famous Helmuth von Moltke, as well as the General Staff. The General Staff was unique in Europe because it directed the logistics of the war, as well as the war strategy. The French, however, had an inexperience command and French commanders were not equal to the Prussian commanders. But what if the French had been better commanded? Integrated from Wikipedia
Mac Mahon on the Defensive
The Prussians started in an uneasy position. No south German state had sided with the Prussians and they were left practically alone. As the war started, French Marechal Patrice de MacMahon advised Emperor Napoleon III to hold off attacks on Prussia and wait for Prussia to make the first move- and strike a blow at a Prussian offensive into Alsace. MacMahon's plan was simple. Stay on the defensive along the German border and fortify. The Prussians would expect the French to make the first move and invade the Saar and the Palatinate. MacMahon said the Prussians would assume the French were building up their army and von Moltke would attack Alsace. Of course, von Moltke would be defeated by the French defenses. Napoleon accepted the plan and put MacMahon in charge. But he warned MacMahon that he could afford no mistake. On July 26, 1870, von Moltke's Prussians led a back attack on the French garrison at Saint Dié. Surprisingly the Prussians did not charge head front on the "MacMahon Line". The garrison at Saint Dié was taken by surprise. However, von Moltke made the crucial mistake of sending a raid on the defensive positions south of Strasbourg to create a safe «way out». MacMahon was alerted and a French army surprised Moltke in Saint Dié.
Disaster at Saint Die
Mac Mahon held the upper hand- he had destroyed the Prussian column trying to break the fortifications, and he had surprised von Moltke in Saint Die. Von Moltke tried to save situation in a last ditch charge, but French cavalry broke through the Prussian lines. Trying to avert any further disaster, von Moltke fled under cover of darkness and retreated back to Saarbrucken. MacMahon, instead of alerting von Moltke's attention, he took the other road to Saarbrucken to create a "surprise". As von Moltke crossed the border into the Palatinate, MacMahon's army crossed the border into the Saar. However, von Moltke decided to not head towards Saarbrucken. Instead of getting von Moltke in Saarbrucken, the French got a Prussian division from further west. The Prussians were defeated and MacMahon launched the offensive with Marshal François Achille Bazaine's additional 40,000 men. With Bazaine's men, MacMahon launched a lightning strike throughout the Saar. Von Moltke was alerted and rushed north, meeting the French troops at the small hamlet of Bexbach. Wilhelm I, King of Prussia, eagerly awaiting the chance to destroy MacMahon sent an army, which outnumbered the combined Prussian armies from Wiesbaden who had come to aid von Moltke against the French. The King's re-enforcements arrived as MacMahon defeated von Moltke. However, the professional re-enforcements sent MacMahon in retreat, for a while it seemed the French would suffer a defeat. However, MacMahon, capturing French reserves, returned to surprise the Prussians.
MacMahon's time was running out- he knew the Prussians would soon seize the golden opportunity to pursue the French troops back to France. He needed to get back to surprise von Moltke at Bexbach. He rallied his remaining men, and the remaining 26,000 men of Marshal François Achille Bazaine's corps. The united French army had around 70,000 men, compared to the united Prussian army's 110,000 men. Victory seemed unlikely. However, MacMahon went forward with the plan and the two Marshals marched back on Bexbach. Using numerous artillery pieces and mounted soldiers, the French struck a surprise attack on the sleeping Prussians in the early hours of August 14, 1870. The Prussians were caught by surprise and quickly routed. But in the midst of confusion, firing, shouts, and battle, Marshal François Achille Bazaine was mortally wounded from a sniper's bullet. However, von Moltke used his strategy to save his division from the confusion and escape to the French border. However, a French cavalry division pursued von Moltke. But von Moltke's troops skirmished with the French cavalry and routed them. However, von Moltke let the French escape back- to alert MacMahon of the danger of von Moltke's division nearing the French border.
MacMahon’s divisions continued their march south into the Saar and across the border to France. However, General Karl von Steinmetz had mobilized reserves in Saarbrucken and marched out to meet the French column. The German reservists were no match for the French and MacMahon soundly routed von Steinmetz. However, von Steinmetz knew too well his force would lose, but during that time, the main Prussian corps led by von Moltke marched towards Metz. MacMahon had been distracted from marching back into France by a diversion attack. However, the French lost no time and entered French soil by late August 1870. Napoleon III had sent a fresh division of troops to Metz to meet von Moltke while MacMahon’s column arrived. Von Moltke laid siege to Metz by August 30. However, he was unaware that MacMahon had been alerted and had diverted his path to Metz. On September 5, the French artillery pounded on the German lines around Metz and the cavalry was able to breach the German lines. Meanwhile, the second French division attacked on the west and caused yet another breach in the German line. Von Moltke’s division, however, was able to flee southwards, towards Nancy. The exhausted French pursued the Germans and caught them before Nancy. However, von Moltke was prepared and crushed the French and was able to continue towards Nancy. Conversely, the French garrison in the town defeated von Moltke and held the Germans at bay until re-enforcements arrived.
While von Moltke was defeated in Nancy, a German army led by Prince Friedrich Karl led an incursion into Luxembourg with hopes of joining up with the Prussian army still in Lorraine. However, a French army, led by Jules Trochu, was alerted and led an incursion into Luxembourgish soil from the south. The two armies met at Bonnevoie in south-eastern Luxembourg. The Prince’s army was unready and was routed by French cavalry and infantry. Yet, things did not end there. The Prince tried to retreat back to friendly soil, but was pursued by the French army that forced them north. The armies clashed numerous times during the rest of September and October. By November, the front had stabilized in Luxembourg and northern Germany. The French had halted the German retreat further into German soil at Bitburg and laid siege to the city. Meanwhile, in Lorraine, MacMahon defeated von Moltke battle after battle and pursued the Prussians back into Germany. On December 5, 1870, Emperor Napoleon III met with Chancellor Otto von Bismarck outside Bitburg. The siege was dropped and a ceasefire was obtained. On the 6th, Helmuth von Moltke surrendered to Patrice de MacMahon. The next day, Prussia officially surrendered at Bitburg. France had won against all odds.
Part II: A New Balance of Power
The Treaty of Paris
In February 1871, Prussian and French negotiators arrived in Paris for the signing of the final treaty. Prussia was to cede all German lands west of the Rhine, including the Palatinate. Prussia was required to pay indemnities to France and was subject to French military occupation of north-western Germany, including the Ruhr. Prussia was militarily and politically weakened on the German scene and its new found role as the leader of Germany was destroyed. Prussia had lost its lands located west of the Rhine, and was subject to occupation of the economically vital Ruhr region.
Eyes on Belgium
Napoleon III’s imperial ambitions did not end on the banks on the Rhine. They also included Luxembourg and Belgium; formerly territories of his uncle, Napoleon I. Overseas, France had gained footholds in Algeria, Syria, Indochina, and Senegal. In 1872, the French government offered the Belgian government a division of the country between French-speaking areas and Flemish-speaking areas. The Belgian government refused and imperial ambitions were settled. In 1874, following the death of Napoleon III the previous year, the new Emperor, Napoleon IV, set his eyes on Belgium once again. In December of the same year, he positioned the army on the Belgian border and waited to spark an incident. In January 1875, he escaped an “assassination attempt” prompted by so-called “Belgian interests against France”. He ordered retaliatory military action against Belgium. In February, France invaded Belgium. The United Kingdom condemned and considered military action against France. Unwilling to face the Royal Navy, Napoleon IV promptly visited Queen Victoria in London to assure her of France’s “friendliness towards England” and persuaded her to back down. France, however, continued its invasion of Belgium and bombarded Ostend, while French troops marched into Brussels. Unable to resist, Belgium surrendered to France, along with their first and only colony, the Congo. Napoleon IV annexed Belgium and divided it into nine departments. Luxembourg was later annexed by France.
The United Kingdom still had its doubts. The government worried that this Second Empire would seek the glory and area of Napoleon I’s empire, and thus set their eyes on Britain too. Victoria heard that Napoleon IV soon ordered the army to take over the Netherlands to increase their own power in Europe, along with their colonies including the Caribbean Islands, Suriname, and The Dutch East Indies. Napoleon IV and his Prime Minister, the war hero, Patrice de MacMahon hosted the British monarch in Paris in early 1876. MacMahon assured Victoria that France would “not seek further European conquests”. However, doubts remained. Napoleon IV, unlike Napoleon III, was eager to seek Franco-British rapprochement and made several goodwill visits to London over the course of his reign.
The Colonial Experience
France already had a sizable chunk of Africa prior to the Second Empire. In 1830, Algiers was occupied, in 1843 and 1844; Guinea and Gabon fell under the French helm. From 1854 to 1865 France acquired Senegal. And in 1874, they had acquired Belgian Congo, thus controlling the Congo region. In the Far East, France annexed Cochin china (the present day countries of Vietnam and Laos) in 1862 and Cambodia in 1863.
The Fashoda Incident
French and British imperialism in Africa were on the verge of clashing. British expansion into the Sudan was halted temporarily after the Mahdi’s revolt, but was to the point of fulfilling the dream of Cecil Rhodes- an empire from Cape to Cairo (this never accomplished to be until 1899). In 1898, a French force of around 150 tirailleurs commanded by Major Jean-Baptiste Marchand set out from Brazzaville to establish a French protectorate in Fashoda. France hoped of an empire from Dakar to the Horn. General Horatio Kitchener, who had just defeat the Mahdi at Omdurman, demanded the immediate retreat of French forces. A diplomatic incident was on the verge of creating a war. In Paris, the ministry of Gaëtan de Rochebouët sought to avert a diplomatic trauma. However, his Foreign Minister, Raymond Poincaré, a conservative and keen imperialist, thought otherwise. And yet, Napoleon IV, whose foreign policy was based around Franco-British rapprochement, was appalled by the incident. By December 1898, the diplomatic battle was at a stalemate. In the Sudan, both sides remained at a standoff before war. However, elections in France were quick approaching and the governing Liberal groups were eager to defeat the imperialist Conservatives once again. Gaëtan de Rochebouët was able to negotiate an amicable solution with Britain while Marchand withdrew his troops. The Liberals won a reduced majority in the 1899 election.
When Germany was weakened by the Franco-Prussian War, their colonies were in loose control and more likely to fall to any power. France, who wanted to expand their empire, decided to invade the colonies most likely to be annexed, so they had the invasion of the Cameroons, Togo, Jiaozhou Bay, Chefoo, Namibia, Tanzania, German New Guinea, and German Samoa. During 1898, France led an attack on the most likely colony to be invaded- German Samoa. With a 500,000 member army and 60 naval ships, the German Samoans were outnumbered with less than 100 troops. As a result, they surrendered without a fight. In Togo, the same army marched to the colony's capital, Lome. Germany sent at least 100,000 soldiers there to protect it. The battle outnumbered the Germans with only 100 French deaths and the German deaths of the whole army. Togo surrendered quickly after knowing what happened. France was getting ready for their invasion of German New Guinea, so they led an 700,000 soldiers to Madang to fight a 300,000 German army. Like the last battle, they were outnumbered, with the whole German army wiped out and 1,000 French deaths. France then began to invade Chefoo and Jiozhou Bay, which surrendered without a fight. In 1899, France decided to give out a treaty to Germany to force the country to give away the rest of their colonies, including Heligoland, which was taken from Britain by Germany long ago. Germany also had to pay France the taxes and the reparations of the war too. Germany was in decline.
With Germany defeated, Russia had lost its main rival in Europe, now faced only by feeble Austria-Hungary. However, Russia needed allies in Europe. In 1890, Napoleon IV visited Saint Petersburg. With the accession of Nicholas II to the Russian throne in 1894, France and Russia signed an alliance. Austria-Hungary was alone in Europe without Germany. It tuned to Italy for aid, but Italy was bitter of the Austrian occupation of the Trentino. In 1900, France and Italy concluded a pact. In 1906, France gained the rest of Morocco and Rio de Orio from Spain without any opposition, and gained reassurances from Italy and Russia. In Germany, the war had not helped German unity. While the south was more united (Bavaria), the North German Confederation was in ruins, Prussia had lost all of its prestige on the local scene and France was slowly installing their empire into Germany, making France the most powerful nation. France was riding on without much interference in its European politics. In 1905, France and Britain played an important role in the negotiations following the Russo-Japanese conflict, which led to an era of liberalization in Russia.
In 1905, the European countries of Britain, Spain, Russia, France, Italy, and Austria-Hungary took role in the war against Japan. Japan wanted to control the seas. This rivaled Russia, so the two countries got in conflict. Russia needed help in the role so by that year, Britain, France, Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Spain joined Russia in the war. As a country in danger because of Japanese invasion, Sun-Yat-Sen allied with Europe against Japan. China needed help on improving in their army and navy, so France provided the technology and Western influence China needed to support the country. But because of the country's improvements, all of the European allies were in the war first. In 1906, Russia, France, Britain, Italy, Spain, and Austria-Hungary led 200,000 fleet against Japan's 222,000 fleet, Despite being outnumbered, the Europeans were able to defeat Japan soon. They had set mines around the sea before the battle, killing half of the Japanese fleet. Finally, the Europeans won the first battle. During the battle, Europe needed to raise at least $35 trillion for China with food supplies and Western technology. As a result, $9 trillion came from Britain, $6 trillion from Russia, $5 trillion from Italy, $7 trillion from France, $8 trillion from Spain, and $6 trillion from Austria Hungary. This may be over their goal with a total of $41 trillion, but supplied China with a lot of money. France and Russia helped turned China's old fashion navy and army into a strong, Westernized one like Europe and America, while Britain was responsible for helping out in the industries. this helped China so much that China had the world's most professional and largest navy and army, and was wealthier. Soon, China was able to join the war now, thanks for what they needed. In 1908, China, Britain, Russia, France, Spain, Italy, and Austria-Hungary led a one million fleet to Tokyo, while the government set at least 800,000 fleet against them. But they were outnumbered, and Japan finally lost. As a result, the Treaty of Tokyo was formed, and the results after the treaty was:
- China was to regain areas lost from Japan.
- Japan's army and navy were both limited.
- The countries of Europe including China became world powers.
- China had a same GDP as Britain, except it is $6 trillion lower than Britain's
- Britain was forced to give back its territories in China.
- All of China's trade with Europe and America was controlled by the country itself.
- Japan lost southern Sakhalin to Russia.
Part III: The Scrabble Of Empires
Because of the Russo-Japanese Conflict, empires started to behave differently. All countries are rising to become world powers and those were Britain, Russia, China, France, America, and Austria-Hungary. Every country has a story about their power.
Rise of Britain
The British Empire was the world's largest country that covered a quarter of the Earth. From 1908, they began to expand their empire like never before.
Edward VII wanted to expand their empire into Europe as well, so the country had a series of wars that created that empire in Europe. In 1908, Britain led an army of over 230,000 men into Denmark. They captured Copenhagen in less than one hour. The Danish army was there outnumbered, and the nation surrendered to Britain, along with its empire. That same year, Edward VII led an invasion of Finland with an 345,000 member-army and a 56,000 ship-navy. As a result, by one week, the nation surrendered to Britain. In 1910, Edward VII died and his son, George V, came to power. He wanted to take Portuguese colonies from the country so they led a naval and land blockade of all of Portugal. This starved the country due to the lock from trade, and as a result, they surrendered. Their African and Asian colonies were also incorporated into the empire.
George V in 1911, decided to improve their relationships with their former longtime enemy, America. 1 and 2 centuries ago, ever since the Thirteen Colonies gained independence, they have become Britain's enemy for years. America has won every war and no nation could defeat it. George V wanted to improve on their actions on themselves so they visited Washington D.C. to meet with Theodore Roosevelt. During their talk, they discussed about their actions on each other and how should it be improved. Soon, George wanted to create an alliance with the country. After a big argument, Theodore finally agrees to the attention that if they were to join the alliance, and U.S.A. and Britain became friends.
In 1912, Turkish pirates began to attack British colonies in Africa and the Middle East. This alarms George V in his anger that he wanted the whole country in his power. As a result, a war was ragged out between the two nations. Arabia also joined with Britain so they could have Ottoman territory they took from them long ago. Soon, Arabia and Britain fought a month-long war that took the place of one million deaths. Soon, during the final days of the war, both nations captured Constantinople, which signals the end of the empire. Due to high taxes, Arabia allowed British annexation, and tall of Ottoman Empire's was in British control, leaving only Turkey. Turkey became republic that was independent until 1913.
In 1914, the George V began to take a look on his empire, believing he can expand it in the Americas. British officials tried to prevent this because of the Monroe Doctrine, but George refused to obey them. By that time, Britain created a blockade all around Central America (except Panama) on sea, the southern border of Mexico, and the northern border of Panama. All of the countries were starving and affected by disease. Finally, all countries surrendered, which Britain got access to the countries. In 1915, George V send a 657,000 member army to Venezuela, a 456,000 member army to Ecuador, and a 345,000 member army to Colombia. In less than 2 months, both of the countries were conquered.
In 1920, while Russia had their hold on the country of Persia, George V wanted to prevent Russia to invade India, so he wanted an invasion of Afghanistan to become a base for British soldiers to guard its border. A 190,000 army led to Kabul to capture it. As a result, the British won, and the country was annexed into the empire. That same year, an 450,000 army led to Nepal and Bhutan. Fearing of invasion, the countries surrendered without a fight. Siam was also invaded that same year too. The same army took control of Bangkok in less than two weeks. Soon, they got control of the country and began to build the Kra Canal, a Canal in Central Siam that will be an easier access to the South China sea.
The taxes from the wars however, were really high. The wars cost the government $40 billion. Britain attacked Germany not to invade, but to force them to pay them $5 trillion dollars for the war costs.
As a result, the British Empire became even larger than ever, and was so powerful no nation would challenge it.
Rise of Russia
Russia is the world's largest country, and wanted to become larger. So as a result, reforms from Nicholas ll created an even stronger Russia.
During that time, Russia gained $15 trillion dollars from Japan for the Russo-Japanese War. Nicholas ll created reforms like children no longer working in factories, reducing work hours, and bigger payments. Other rights created by Nicholas made the people happy, so there was no Russian Revolution. Nicholas looked at his country, knowing to be the largest in the world. He wanted to expand it, and had many military adventures on the way.
In 1901, a Russian army with 650,000 members began to march into Sweden. After a week-long trip, they reached Stockholm, where the war started. Sweden and Russia got into a fight that resulted in just five hours and Russia the winner. As a result, they annexed Russia a part of their country.
That same year, Russia found out that Germany is so poor, and would be taking advantage in this by invading their territory. Russia led an 870,000 army there to Berlin. They clashed with the weaker army that had only 120,000. Soon, in a quick time, the Russians soon won. As a result, German lands east are part of their empire. Germany one the east has become the OTL modern border. Also, Germany must pay Russia $5 trillion dollars to the government.
In 1905, China was in a need for money. So they sold a frontier in Outer Mongolia to the Russians for $1 trillion dollars. Soon, the border of Mongolia is at its present. In 1915, 600,000 Russian soldiers began to invade Turkey. The country was so weak because their fight from the Arabians and the British that they only had a small army of just 20,000. Because of the size, Russia won the war quickly. In 1920, Persia was invaded. The Russians led a 546,000 attack on Tehran, Persia's capital. In 1924, Austria-Hungary and Russia got into a fight for territory. The war was the Russian invasion of the northern and eastern parts of the Austrian-Hungarian empire. The Russians had fought a war with Russia. As a result, they took the areas that are modern day Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia, and Hungary.
Russia had more terriotry than ever. It soon had more than the Mongol Empire, the second largest empire.
Rise of France
France ever since the victory against Germany was about to gain even more power. The country soon grew up to be a wealthy empire.
The French wanted to get control on most of the Mediterranean. In 1910 at least 560,000 soldiers and 345 naval ships needed for the island of Sicily. The Italian government sent 600,000 soldiers to Sicily to protect. However, two thirds of the army was sent back to Italy to protect it from Austria's invasion. As a result, France took all of the advantage of Italy's situation and began marching in to Palermo, Sicily's capital. The army was so outnumbered that it was wiped out very quick. As a result, the Italian government were forced to give up their hold on their colonies, Sardinia and Corsica.
In 1911, the government ordered an invasion of Southwest Germany. Soon, a 210,000 member army led into Stuttgart to conquer it. The government sent a 200,000 army against them, but 120,000 of them had to fight the Russians. The army was terribly outnumbered. Finally, Germany would take it no more. They surrendered their southwest territory. In 1915 The government also led an invasion of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein was the first to surrender. Their army was so tiny that they cannot attack the French. They surrendered quickly as a 450,00 member army was just marching. Soon, that same army also invaded Switzerland. The army led to attack Zurich. Soon as a result, the Swiss army surrendered. The reason for this invasion was that the country had a lot of money and had the most secure banks in the world. France could use theirs. Soon, France led an invasion of Northwest Italy. The government first led an 560,000 army against the Austrians, who first occupied the army. The Austrian army was poor because their soldiers had to do the Italian invasion. So French soldiers defeated the army so quick that the Austrians sold out that territory.
In Africa, 1920, the government was interested in controlling Ethiopia, the last independent country in Africa, which Liberia was annexed to U.S.A. for free. The French led an attack on Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. The old fashioned 560,000 army fought the French advanced 450,000 army. The French might had been outnumbered, but they had superior weapon technology the Africans can't match. As a result, Ethiopia became a part of the empire.
France became one of the centers of world power. They are the most immune after Britain.
Rise of Austria-Hungary
Without the Black Hand, Austria-Hungary began to create one of the world's largest country by invading the land south of the country.
In 1901, the Austrian government ordered the invasion of the Balkan States. The Austrians sent out an 1,002,000 army to Serbia to conquer. It. The invasion was very successful, and the Austrians won. They killed every member of the Black Hand, which soon ceased ton exist. They wanted to make sure the Serbians don not oppose them. That same time, a 1 million member army led an invasion of Romania, a country east to Serbia. The Austrians had a very easy victory, and conquered it. In 1904, an army of 789,000 men started to invade Bulgaria. After a week long battle, Bulgaria lost. Soon, in that same year, the Austrians invaded Greece, but they had the tiniest army around. As a result, Greece rather surrender than fight, and it quickly became a part of their empire.
In 1910, there was a dispute between Ottomans and Austrian in Europe. The Austrians wanted Istanbul and its territory to the west, so they led a very powerful invasion. The Ottomans, however, had the most outdated army ever seen. Most of them had to fight the Russians, the British, and the Arabs. Soon, the Ottoman army had only 100 men against an 560,000 Austrian army. as a result, the Austrians won a quick victory.
In 1911, the Austrians led an invasion of Italy, hoping to control the Adriatic Sea. The Italians hated the Austrians, an both nation soon clashed into a big war. The Italians and the Austrians fought in the city of Rome when the Austrians landed there. The Italians lost a grueling battle against the Austrians so as a result, they lost, and Austria took over Italy.
Austria, however, had faced a terrible invasion of the Russians and the French. They had lost many battles and were forced to give out whole chunks of territory. However, the empire survived still.
Rise of USA
Even USA was a great power. It was also known as the American Empire, but not the kind of empire you are thinking. The reason is not that America is a monarchy, it is just because they own some land around the world like every empire.
In 1898, U.S. and Spain fought in the Spanish-American War, The conflict was so big that Spain was the most hard-hit in the war. The Americans had a better army and navy than any other country, which they had a better chance of winning. Soon, ever since they won, Spain was forced to give away large sums of money and all of their territory: the Philippines, Guam, Wake, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Spanish lands in Africa. As a result, they all became states, creating the 59 States of America.
In 1900, Liberia needed a stronger leader, and they believed the U.S.A.'s president would do their help. As the president began to notice this, Liberia agreed American annexation. America made this their 60th state. The state however, like theirs in Africa, are in danger of French or British annexation. The Americans created a treaty with the two countries, making them not to invade their states in Africa. Finally, they both agreed on this.
China and its Great Leap Forward
In 1910, Mao Zedong was elected president. He turned the country into a huge economic machine and began turn China into a arsenal of industry. His goal was to make China the world's greatest economic power, but because it is ranked in second place, with the British Empire in the lead, China began to use $4 trillion dollars to take over industries to become the greatest economy in the world. They had stocks all over the world, and they were in the hunt for the world's natural resources.
Before the Russo-Japanese Conflict, China was a poor country, with only $5 trillion to support themselves. However, since the war, however, at least $41 trillion had been delivered from Europe, and the Chinese were grateful of this, and began to live in a better life. In 1910, when Mao Zedon stepped to the tower of power, he wanted China the world's greatest power in economy in order to rival Britain's.
In 1911, Mao Zedong used $4 trillion to by stocks, companies, and even parts of land. In January 1st, the government bought oil and gas stocks from Britain's Middle East colonies. They wanted it to produce electricity for their cities and the country side. For this, the Chinese paid Britain 50 billion dollars for this. At least 45 billion was paid to Russia for oil fields in Iran, Central Asia, and Siberia. Soon, Shanghai started to build many oil tankers to carry their oil into China. the country soon created power plants and even discovered oil and gas on their own, but also coal. As plants were set up nationwide, thousands people with little job started to come to the plants and began the mass working of electricity.
Two months later, the government wanted gold for themselves due to the lack of it in China. They find out that the Union of South Africa and Australia and a lot of gold and China could use some of that. China paid at least $1 trillion for a third of Britain's gold mines in South Africa and Australia. That way, the Chinese can hire people to mine them. At least $3 trillion from the mines in just 4 months supplies China with lots of money. As China wanted other metals from France, 500 billion dollars were paid to them. And over 120 million came to work there.
During that time, China's need for rubber, iron, timber, and many other resources led to China's stock world wide. At least 1,000 stocks are dotted all over the world. Rubber from Brazil, timber from Canada, wool and cotton from Australia, iron and copper from India, and there were so many other place China's power of economy finally reached the top.
This became known as the "Great Leap Forward", which helped improve China's economy. For farming, miles of canals were built in the Talkimakan Desert create farms, reservoirs, and even settlements. China discovered some of their resources in their own country. Many country people in China who are poor moved to the cities for better jobs and more money.
As China's economy went to the top, so did tourism. Many people wanted to visit China because of its splendid sights. Also, many people wanted to go to work there as well.
The government wanted fresh water for everybody, however, droughts had made this difficult. Chinese scientists had created chemicals which soldiers sprayed it into the air. Soon, this gave at least one inch of snow in China. This helps people to give fresh water.
However, China's growing industry has created problems. First of all, it is the pollution. China has created poisonous air, and polluted the water. As a result, this is becoming an increasing problem. So as a result, the government wanted to stop spilling wastes into rivers and seas. the country created diesel and ethanol, which provided power to a fourth China.
Soon, China became the greatest economic power in the world.
The Big Powers
During the 20th century, China, Russia, Britain, France, and U.S. were all world powers. The nations decided create an organization featuring the world powers. When the Big Powers was formed in 1950, there are the members. However, they found out there were more great powers other than them. The top is the greatest, the bottom is the least:
- British Empire
- United States of America
- French Empire
- Russian Empire
- Austrian Empire
The organization had at least 11 members. It is said that a world power must be a world power if it has: great sphere of influence, have great military power, and be a powerful nation.