After suffering a terrible defeat at the Battle of Antietam and some victories in the Maryland Campaign, Confederate General Robert E. Lee plans to invade the North a second time.


The deadly aftermath of The Battle of Antietam

This time his cause is a great one. His army lacking in basic but vital supplies, such as shoes and ammunition, he decides he will march up into Pennsylvania to take what he can from the Northern farms and industrial complexes. His army consists of about 75,000 men. On June 3, shortly after the Battle of Fredricksburg, Lee's army departs.

Confederates Advance to the North

Lee's army was in full march heading north. He had sent small cavalry squadrons across the Rappahannock River to try and deceive the Federal forces. His plan was to make the Federals think that Lee would still hold his original line at Fredricksburg. Truly, He had

220px-Robert E Lee in 1863

Robert Edward Lee

pulled his entire army from the line and marched five miles south first then turned northwest to steer clear of Federal scouts. These movements didn't change much as his army faced minor skirmishes at Culpepper, Brandy Station, and the small town of Aldie. Still his army kept marching. Taking what they could form the Northern farms and homes. He acquired many crops to feed his army such as corn, apples, pears, and also peaches and plums. They benefited greatly from this.

Arrival at Gettysburg

Lee, not knowing the surrounding terrain and area sends, J.E.B Stuart and a division of cavalry, ahead of the main force to scout in all directions and reporting their findings every two days. The Union army marches parallel to Lee's as they have scouts also. The refrain from engaging in a main battle but keep up skirmish attacks all along the route. On June 30th, Stuart's cavalry had proceeded all the way around Union forces and advanced on the town of Hanover. He was ordered to scout for a flanking position, where Lee could out maneuver the Federal army. He arrived to find a regiment of cavalry stationed here. He attacked and destroyed most of the regiment. He stole maps and some weapons from the regiment and allowed them to retreat. He immediately ordered his cavalry to proceed back to the expected positions of Lee's army; Gettysburg. He arrived early morning on July 1st bringing Lee vital intelligence. Lee planned to take Gettysburg and hold it, and also to send 25,000 of his man on a march to Hanover in an effort to flank the Federal Army from the south. If he succeeded, he could take the towns of Manchester and Westminster swiftly, and attack the Union rear if battle happened at Gettysburg.

Battle of Gettysburg (P.O.D)

On July 1st Lee had engaged Federal cavalry and other forces at Herr Ridge, McPherson Ridge and Seminary Ridge. There, Lee brought up a force of 23,000 expecting the entire Union army to be there. Ultimately, he had crushed the Federals by 10:30 that night. As the skirmishes were rounding up, he had a meeting with his commanders. He debated whether he should spread out his small force of 23,000 and take the hills, or wait to bring up his entire army then frontal assault the town early morning. General Longstreet protested in waiting and the entire battle itself. Lee firmly said he would not retreat after such a great victory, so Longstreet settled on the choice of taking defensive positions on the hills. Longstreet explained, that if the Federals had brought up the rest of their forces, they would think they could take the hills with little resistance. Then as they attacked Lee could bring up the rest of his forces and counterattack. Lee approved of the plan. That night and all through the morning of July 2nd, Lee deployed 11,000 men on McPherson Ridge, 5000 on Seminary Ridge, 3000 on Herr Ridge, and the remaining 2000 on Oak Hill. At 7:30 AM, Lee had brought up 20,000 more men to wait in the rear. He then ordered Hood's division to scout thaE area around Cemetery Ridge and Cemetery Hill, the only hill Lee had not taken. At 8:00 AM, Hood reported that the Federal forces had shifted around and deployed their forces at Power's Hill, along Rock Creek, and Culp's Hill. Lee then ordered Hood to take the Cemetery Ridge & Hill, which was lightly defended. The rest of the day had been uneventful.

On July 3rd the Federal forces had brought up their entire force and took Little Round Top and Big Round Top. Lee hearing of this deployed Longstreet's Corps at Devil's Den in order to repel a Federal assault. Lee's original plan to deceive the Federals had partially worked. He had made George Meade bring up the entire army and now they were forced to do battle. Meade believing he could flank the Confederates and retake the hills, ordered a massive assault at 10:15 AM, on Devil's Den. Longstreet had an abundance of artillery and repelled the Union invaders three times. Each time, the Federals had committed a large part of their forces to the attack. In Washington, politicians urged for Meade to press the attack and push Lee out of Pennsylvania. At 3:50 PM, Meade ordered 30,000 fresh men to take Seminary ridge as they marched through Gettysburg. They were met with fierce resistance, as Lee had deployed artillery on each hill and ridge. Meade's forces took 5000 casualties as they marched through the town. Lee then ordered A.P Hill's Corps to counterattack Meade's assault and push them out of the town. At 6:00 PM Meade's force was in full retreat toward their original position.

The next day, July 4th, Lee surrounded the shaken Federal forces at Culp's Hill and surrounding areas. As part of Lee's grand plan 26,000 men of both corps had taken Manchester and Westminster. By 7:00 that night, Lee had counterattacked with a frontal assault on Culp's Hill, while also flanking the Union rear from Westminster. On July 5th Meade and his forces surrendered after four days of fighting. Meade had lost near 36,000 men while Lee suffered 15,000. Meade ordered his entire force to disarm and they became prisoners to Lee. Most of them however retreated to Northern held territories, so in actuality, Lee had taken close to 10,000 prisoners.

July 6th, after the victory, Lee ordered 11,000 men to attack the lightly defended city of Baltimore. They succeeded and Lee garrisoned the rest of his army in and around the city.

Surrender of the Union army

Lee had received a plentiful stockpile of supplies in the city of Baltimore. On July 7th he had sent word to Jefferson Davis of his victories at Gettysburg and Baltimore. The next day Davis, delivered the peace terms and Lincoln formally surrendered the Union Army to Robert E. Lee at Baltimore on July 28th 1864. In the West, Federal forces had received the news, and they also formally surrendered their forces to Braxton Bragg, commander of the Army of the Tennessee. Guerrilla forces then started to harass the Confederate army though. As part of the peace terms, the CSA would annex Kentucky, Texas and the Indian Territories, and the US would disarm 50,000 of its troops and decommission 20 military vessels.

Reconstruction (1865-1873)

The defeat of the Union left many Northerners disheartened and just plain upset. Many politicians resigned their posts and fled for the South. People also personally blamed Lincoln for the Northern defeat. They openly called for his impeachment in the streets of New York, Baltimore, New Jersey, and Washington D.C. Lincoln, did not, however, and as the election was coming to an end he was executed. People felt now he really could not be elected. The suspect was never found. Confederate President Jefferson Davis sends his regards to the Lincoln family.

After the South won a complete victory, they were overjoyed. A strong sense of patriotism and nationalism was felt all over. Even by slaves. Although it was time for celebration, it was also time for important business;shaping their new nation. Jefferson Davis, the president, was elected in 1861. Presidents of the UCSA, could serve three terms consisting of five years each. So, from the end of 1864 and until 1866, Davis did nothing but throw parties, spend money from the treasury, go on international vacations and all other extravagant things. Davis was bankrupting the Southern States. In 1866, he was reelected and chose Robert E. Lee as his vice president, which Lee reluctantly accepted. Sadly, Davis passed away shortly after taking his post. Lee was then sworn in as president. Now, Lee was not obsessed with the finer things in life, and knew how bankrupt Davis had made the country. His first weeks in office, and he was already devising a new budget for the next year. He also abolished all of the wartime conscription acts put in place. The new requirements were all all men from the ages of 17 and 45 were ordered to serve at least 6 months during peacetime, and one year during wartime. Lee also permitted the training of African American soldiers, and he personally oversaw the formation of the 1st Black Soldiers Regiment, They were nicknamed "Lee's Darkies".

Many people in the Confederate Cabinet and House of Representatives, were upset at the many reforms Lee was making. But, they could not argue that he was doing a good job. The country was in a golden age. Trade between European nations had commenced, France and Britain had pledged financial support to the fledgling nation, and they had received blueprints on many technological advancements of the day.

Confederate-Mexican War over Texas (1873-1874)

Main Article: In 1873, Mexico sent diplomats to Richmond. They argued on behalf of the Mexican Emperor, that Texas was rightfully theirs now that it was under Confederate control. Lee getting older and older, said that he would not release Texas even if it meant war. Two weeks later Mexican forces marched 28,000 Mexican troops to the Texan border and fired upon the fort of Rio Bravo and Del Rio. The Confederate garrisons there were heavily undefended. Eight days later on April 21st, both forts had fallen and the Mexicans marched into Texas.

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