The Treaty of Vienna was signed in Vienna on January 20th 1806.In the Winter of 1805 France declared war on the Holy Roman Empire, after Francis II refused to submit to Napoleon I's demmands. Following a short campaign the Austria army was dealt a crushing defeat on the field of Austerlitz, arguably Napoleons greatest victory. The evening after the battle Francis II arrived at the french camp, offering a peace treaty with Napoleon.
The Treaty effectively destroyed Austria as a major world power, giving independence to Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia, and losing territory to France.
Politically the Treaty continued Napoleons policy and aims from The Treaty of Munich a year before. Napoleons master plan was to subdue the germans by seizing control of the left bank of the Rhine (Which he did at Munich) and then establish Austria, Bavaria and Prussia as central european powers, with status as french allies as opposed to puppet states. The rivalry between the 3 states (all of whom were ethnically german) would prevent them from uniting, and prevent german unification ever becoming a major issue.