The End of the Second Punic War
Hannibal, after receiving siege weapons from Carthage, lays siege to Rome. Alarmed by this, the armies surrounding Capua go to Rome, where they are slaughtered by Hannibal. Hasdrubal Barca joins up with Hannibal, and Scipio Africanus leaves Africa and returns to Rome, which leads to the Battle of Rome. Scipio is defeated and goes into exile. Hannibal, along with his brother, lay siege to Rome and eight months later, the walls are broken and the city is leveled.
Aftermath of the Second Punic War
With Rome defeated, Hannibal leaves Italy to return to Iberia, while his brother Hasdrubal stays to finish subjugating the other cities still in rebellion against Carthage.
Hannibal in Iberia
Although Rome had been defeated, many of the Iberian nations still allied themselves with her. Hannibal fell upon them, like the wrath of the gods, in The Second Battle of Baecula, the Battle of Ilyria, and the Battle of Arbocala. Hannibal set out to the leveled city of New Carthage and rebuilt it, with several settlers from the friendly city of Ilyria. Hannibal's quick and ruthless efficiency in his battles led almost all of the remaining Iberian nations to submit to Carthaginian rule. With Hannibal's work in Iberia done, he returned to Italy to help his brother.
Hasdrubal in Italy
After the siege and destruction of Rome, Hasdrubal and his allied cities went forth to capture other remaining cities. The old consular Tarentius Varro was the leader of this so-called Roman Resistance. Hasdrubal met Varro at the city of Nola, where Hasdrubal was defeated. Hasdrubal retreated west and captured Neapolis. Varro ignored Hasdrubal's success and went straight to the Italian capital, Capua. It was a trap, Hannibal was fifty miles north of Capua and Hasdrubal went on the move again, in hopes of sandwiching Varro's army. Tarentius Varro saw this and headed east, hoping to retreat to the Adriatic Sea. Carthaginian quinqueremes sailed up the eastern coast of the Italian Peninsula. Varro sheltered in Ancona in hopes of sailing away, to Sicily. His retreating army fled into the sea, but the Carthaginian navy was waiting for them. The Romans were in a trap, many soldiers jumped off their boats and swam to Ancona, where they were ruthlessly slaughtered by Carthaginian armies. Varro himself was taken prisoner and within a period of six months, the cities of Tarentum, Croton, Nola, and Pisae were captured. The only remaining rebelling city, Padua, held out for another year before being captured.
Hanno and Mago in Sicily
After hearing of their brothers success, the two Barca brothers Hanno and Mago, along with the crafty Massinissa went forth to Sicily. Hearing this, the Syracusan king revolted once more to Carthage. With Syracuse as their base, Carthage sent reinforcements to Sicily and one by one the cities submitted to Carthaginian rule. A turning point in the war, the Battle of Messina, led to the reconquering of Sicily and the end of Roman rule and authority.
With the war officially over, Hannibal returned home. He wasn't done yet, however. He saw the corruption of the Carthaginian senate and the governing body, called the Hundred and Four. He brought his army to the gates of Carthage and overthrew the government. In its stead, Hannibal named the creation of the Carthaginian Senate. Hannibal stated that, although he hated Rome, its government and political system was very effective. Hannibal wished to change the oligarchic type government, where the center city of Carthage ruled over all of its colonies. In its place, he wished to form a democratic society with a united empire. Hannibal was elected King of Carthage and he made the governor of Italy Hasdrubal and the governor of Iberia, Mago.
The Egyptian War
The newly formed Carthaginian Senate was facing a series of choices. Hasdrubal considered admitting Gaul into the Carthaginian Empire, Hannibal had helped many of the tribes in the Second Punic War break free from Rome and thought that the Gauls would join effortlessly, but sailors who had sailed through the Pillars of Hercules brought back gold from the so-called "Negro Land". Bomilcar considered settling along the Niger River. Hannibal considered a more realistic approach. Attacking Egypt would leave the Nile River open to Carthage to expand into, using the Nile river, they could expand south easily, avoiding the desert and into the heart of Africa. Instead of focusing on one, the Senate agreed to do all things. Messengers were sent into Gaul, settlers set up small towns along the coast of the Western Sahara and Hannibal got together an army, many of them veterans of the Second Punic War. Many Egyptian forces were gathered, as news of an attack by Carthage might take place. Gaul admitted into the Empire. Hannibal's army met in lower Egypt and Hannibal lay a trap for the Egyptians, who went into it as the Romans did, and crushed them. A second battle took place outside the capital Alexandria, yet again the Carthaginian forces were victorious and the Pharaoh of Egypt was killed. The Nile was open, which the army quickly occupied. Hannibal entered the city and the Egyptian people offered allegiance to Hannibal, Gisco was made governor of Egypt.