This article covers the Mongolian expansion in Eurasia and the Mongol Empire and the Khanates in the period 1200–1400 AD.
- The Mongols attack Turkmenistan as the beginning of their raids against the known world. In 1211, they attack Later Zhou (Northern China) and by 1234, they had subdued all Chinese kingdoms but Liao and Wuyue.
- The Mongols defeat the Franks and sacked Lutecia. In 1249 Rome falls under the Mongols. In 1254 the Mongols capture London. By 1255, only Iberia, Scandinavia and Helvetia are free from the Mongols.
- With Japan, Liao, Wuyue, and India, these are the only focuses of Civilization in Eurasia spared by the Mongols.
The Mongols behaved in many ways in the conquered territories but, mostly, they replaced the rulers and integrated the soldiers as new mongol warriors.
Managing such a vast empire on horse was a very difficult task, and soon local governors converted their part of the empire in personal chiefdoms, mostly adapting to the ways of the locals.
These smaller chiefdoms are usually known as khanates. Some khanates fought each other, were threatened by neighboring states, or had to control uprisings but their subjects.
In 1347, began a series of outbreaks of what is called the "Black Death". The pandemic affected the whole Eurasia, from China to Europe, and was a further factor to the decline of the Mongol rule in Europe and China, while somehow encroached the khanates in the great plains of Central Asia.