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IOT the Persians entered at their glory partly thanks to their victory at the Battle of Opis. Since then, Mesopotamia lost dominance and was always conquered by other nations. But what would have happened if the Babylonians won the battle of Opis, causing the Persian Empire to collapse?
The Battle of Opis
The battle started near the town of Opis, near the Euphrates River. Cyrus the Great led the Persian attack while Emperor Nabonidus led the Babylonian defense.
The Babylonian army made the first move, sending envoys to Babylon for asking for reinforcements. Then, they started trying to surround the Persian army. Leading it to the Euphrates Bridge, the army of Cyrus was ready to respond when a Babylonian army, not known to Nabonidus' army nor to Cyrus' arrived. It didn't enter the bridge, but instead destroyed it with the other army's help, sending most Persians to death due to their heavy armour, Cyrus among them.
The Persian peoples were shocked by the Babylonian victory. Never had the Persians been defeated by an enemy army since Cyrus' ascent to the throne! The defeat saw the opportunity the Lydians and Parthians searched. They declared independence from the Persians. The Persians were in no condition to defeat the rebel armies. Persia was reduced to a small area on OTL south Iran.