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The Lion of Britain

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In this Alternative time line, the British reach some higher peaks of their empire.

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom (UK), that had originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1922, the British Empire held sway over a population of about 2,759 million people, one-third of the world's population, and covered more than a half of the Earth's total land area- which included five of the world's continents. As a result, its political, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, it was often said that "the sun never sets on the British Empire" because its span across the globe ensured that the sun was always shining on at least one of its numerous territories.

During the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries, Spain and Portugal pioneered European exploration of the globe and in the process established large overseas empires. Envious of the great wealth these empires bestowed, England, France and the Netherlands began to establish colonies and trade networks of their own in the Americas and Asia. A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England (Britain, following the 1707 Act of Union with Scotland) the dominant colonial power in North America and India. Despite this setback, British attention soon turned towards Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Following the defeat of Napoleonic France in 1815, Britain enjoyed a century of effectively unchallenged dominance, and expanded its imperial holdings across the globe. 

Unlike the real British Empire, there are eight differences.



  1. Queen Victoria lived for 420 years (1590-2010), though see ruled for 400 years  
  2. The 13 colonies are kept
  3. Africa, Antarctica, Australia, North America, and South America were under Britain's complete rule.
  4. Britain controlled the Middle East, South Asia, and Southeast Asia which surrounded the India Ocean 
  5. The empire was 3 times wealthier than the real historical empire.
  6. The population was 1 third the world.
  7. Britain is one of the many powers on the continent of Europe.
  8. The empire covers over half the world.

The New Name of A Nation (1497-1570)

In 1497, Scotland, Ireland, and England were all once separate nations of the British Isles. By that time, King Henry VII of England began a conquest. Over one hundred thousand soldiers fought the Scottish Capital of Glascow. The Scottish army leader Bruce was captured in battle. Meanwhile, the city walls were bought down. And over two thirds of its residents were killed. As a result, the Scottish were forced to become a part of England. The remaining fifty thousand soldiers sailed to Irleand's capital Dublin. The Irish were hoever, outnumbered and Ireland became a part of England. Ireland was also the first English colony, so plantations were grown to raise England's money for trade.

In 1500, King George was glorified the conquest of the Isles. Because of this, he changed England into Britain. It became the empire's new name.


Exploration of the Americas   

Following many Spanish and Portuguese explorers and the knowing that the Earth was round, Queen Elizabeth ordered that she should crate colonies in the Northern part of the New World.
Elizabeth set out to rule by good counsel,and she depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers led by William Cecil, Baron Burghley. One of her first moves as queen was to support the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement held firm throughout her reign and later evolved into today's Church of England. It was expected that Elizabeth would marry, but despite several petitions from parliament, she never did. The reasons for this choice are unknown, and they have been much debated. As she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity, and a cult grew up around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, and literature of the day. Under Queen Elizabeth, Britain was very wealthy by dodging the expensive wars in history. As a result, industries expanded and even more money was made

In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and siblings.One of her mottoes was "video et taceo" ("I see, and say nothing"). This strategy, viewed with impatience by her counsellors, often saved her from political and marital misalliances. Though Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs and only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France and Ireland, the defeat of the Spanish armada in 1588 associated her name forever with what is popularly viewed as one of the greatest victories in English history. Within 20 years of her death, she was being celebrated as the ruler of a golden age, an image that retains its hold on the English people. Elizabeth's reign is known as the Elizabethan era, famous above all for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, and for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake.


"First British Empire" (1583–1783)

In 1578, Queen Elizabeth I granted a patent to Humphrey Gilbert for discovery and overseas exploration. That year, Gilbert sailed for the West Indies with the intention of engaging in piracy and establishing a colony in North America, but the expedition was aborted before it had crossed the Atlantic. In 1583 he embarked on a second attempt, on this occasion to the island of Newfoundland whose harbour he formally claimed for England, though no settlers were left behind. Gilbert did not survive the return journey to England, and was succeeded by his half-brother, Walter Raleigh, who was granted his own patent by Elizabeth in 1584. Later that year, Raleigh founded the colony of Roanoke on the coast of present-day North Carolina, but lack of supplies caused the colony to fail.

In 1600, Queen Victoria became leader. Now at peace with its main rival, English attention shifted from preying on other nations' colonial infrastructure to the business of establishing its own overseas colonies. The British Empire began to take shape during the early 17th century, with the English settlement of North America and the smaller islands of the Caribbean, and the establishment of a private company, the English East India Company, to trade with Asia. This period, until the loss of the Thirteen Colonies after the American War of Independence towards the end of the 18th century, has subsequently been referred to as the "First British Empire".

In 1670, granted a charter to the , granting it a monopoly on the in what was then known as , a vast stretch of territory that would later make up a large proportion of . Forts and trading posts established by the Company were frequently the subject of attacks by the French, who had established their own fur trading colony in adjacent .

Two years later, the was inaugurated, receiving from King Charles a monopoly of the trade to supply slaves to the British colonies of the Caribbean. From the outset, was the basis of the British Empire in the West Indies. Until the abolition of the slave trade in 1807, Britain was responsible for the transportation of 3.5 million African slaves to the Americas, a third of all . To facilitate this trade, forts were established on the coast of , such as , and . In the British , the percentage of the population of rose from 25 percent in 1650 to around 80 percent in 1780, and in the Thirteen Colonies from 10 percent to 40 percent over the same period (the majority in the southern colonies). For the slave traders, the trade was extremely profitable, and became a major economic mainstay for such western as and , which formed the third corner of the so-called with Africa and the Americas. For the transportees, harsh and unhygienic conditions on the slaving ships and poor diets meant that the average during the was one in seven.

In 1695, the granted a charter to the , which proceeded in 1698 to establish a settlement on the , with a view to building a there. Besieged by neighbouring Spanish colonists of , and afflicted by , the colony was abandoned two years later. The was a financial disaster for Scotland—a quarter of Scottish capital was lost in the enterprise—and ended Scottish hopes of establishing its own overseas empire. The episode also had major political consequences, persuading the governments of both England and Scotland of the merits of a union of countries, rather than just crowns. This was achieved in 1707 with the , establishing the .

At the end of the 16th century, and began to challenge 's monopoly of trade with , forming private companies to finance the voyages—the English, later , and East India Companies, chartered in 1600 and 1602 respectively. The primary aim of these companies was to tap into the lucrative , and they focused their efforts on the source, the , and an important hub in the trade network, . The close proximity of and across the and intense rivalry between and the inevitably led to conflict between the two companies, with the Dutch gaining the upper hand in the (previously a Portuguese stronghold) after the withdrawal of the English in 1622, and the English enjoying more success in India, at , after the establishment of a in 1613.Although England would ultimately eclipse the Netherlands as a colonial power, in the short term the Netherlands's more advanced financial system and the three of the 17th century left it with a stronger position in Asia. Hostilities ceased after the of 1688 when the Dutch ascended the English throne, bringing peace between the Netherlands and England. A deal between the two nations left the spice trade of the Indonesian archipelago to the Netherlands and the textiles industry of India to England, but textiles soon overtook spices in terms of profitability, and by 1720, in terms of sales, the English company had overtaken the Dutch. The English East India Company shifted its focus from Surat—a hub of the spice trade network—to (later to become ), (ceded by the Portuguese to in 1661 as dowry for ) and (which would merge with two other villages to form ).

Peace between England and the Netherlands in 1688 meant that the two countries entered the as allies, but the conflict—waged in and overseas between France, Spain and the Anglo-Dutch alliance—left the English a stronger colonial power than the Dutch, who were forced to devote a larger proportion of their on the costly in Europe. The 18th century would see England (after 1707, Britain) rise to be the world's dominant colonial power, and France becoming its main rival on the imperial stage.

The death of in 1700 and his bequeathal of Spain and its colonial empire to , a grandson of the , raised the prospect of the unification of France, Spain and their respective colonies, an unacceptable for England and the other powers of Europe. In 1701, Britain, Portugal and the Netherlands sided with the against Spain and France in the War of the Spanish Succession, which lasted until 1714. At the concluding , Philip renounced his and his descendants' right to the French throne and Spain lost its empire in Europe. The British Empire was territorially enlarged: from France, Britain gained and , and from Spain, and . , which is still a to this day, became a critical naval base and allowed Britain to control the Atlantic entry and exit point to the . Minorca was returned to Spain at the in 1802, after changing hands twice. Spain also ceded the rights to the lucrative asiento (permission to sell slaves in ) to Britain.The , which began in 1756, was the first war waged on a global scale, fought in , , , the , the and coastal Africa. The signing of the had important consequences for the future of the British Empire. In North America, France's future as a colonial power there was effectively ended with the recognition of British claims to , the ceding of to Britain (leaving a sizeable French-speaking population under British control) and to Spain. New Spain ceded to Britain. In India, the had left France still in control of its but with military restrictions and an obligation to support British client states, effectively leaving the future of India to Britain. The British victory over France in the Seven Years' War therefore left Britain as the world's dominant colonial power.

France also had to pay Britain the whole cost of the war too along with the New World Colonies.

Rise of the "Second British Empire" (1783–1815)

During its first century of operation, the English East India Company focused on trade, as it was not in a position to challenge the powerful Mughal Empire, which had granted it trading rights in 1617. This changed in the 18th century as the Mughals declined in power and the East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, the La Compagnie française des Indes orientales, during the Carnatic Wars in the 1740s to 1750. In 1750, Queen Victoria took the throne.

Queen Victoria was said to be the oldest person in the world. She was born in 1730, and became queen in the age of twenty. Under her, she bought Britain the largest, wealthiest, and most powerful empire in the world. Her one hundred two sons are said to become the princes of Britain's provinces, and five of them are said to become rulers of France, Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia!

The Battle of Plassey in 1757, which saw the British, led by Robert Clive, defeat the French and their Indian allies, left the Company in control of Bengal and as the major military and political power in India. In the following decades it gradually increased the size of the territories under its control, either ruling directly or via local puppet rulers under the threat of force from the British Indian Army, the vast majority of which was composed of native Indian sepoys. Even when the sepoys lost, Queen Victoria disbanded the company fearing for another Mutiny, and claimed her self as the new ruler of the Mughal Empire, ruling India, ruling all of South Asia. Other controllers of India lost and Netherlands and Spain were forced to give their land in the Americas and Asia and Africa.

Since 1762, all of the Americas were occupied by Britain so the British Empire must find new settlements. The British government turned to the newly discovered lands of Australia. The western coast of Australia had been discovered for Europeans by the Dutch explorer Willem Jansz in 1606 and was later named by the Dutch East India Company New Holland, but there was no attempt to colonize it. In 1770 James Cook discovered the eastern coast of Australia while on a scientific voyage to the South Pacific Ocean, claimed the continent for Britain, and named it New South Wales. In 1778, Joseph Banks, Cook's botanist on the voyage, presented evidence to the government on the suitability of Botany Bay for the establishment of a penal settlement, and in 1787 the first shipment of convicts set sail, arriving in 1788. Britain continued to transport convicts to New South Wales until 1840, at which time the colony's population numbered 56,000, the majority of whom were convicts, ex-convicts or their descendants. The Australian colonies became profitable exporters of wool and gold. During his voyage, Cook also visited New Zealand, first discovered by Dutch sailors in 1642, and claimed the North and South islands for the British crown in 1769 and 1770 respectively. Initially, interaction between the native Maori population and Europeans was limited to the trading of goods. European settlement increased through the early decades of the 19th century, with numerous trading stations established, especially in the North. In 1839, the New Zealand Company announced plans to buy large tracts of land and establish colonies in New Zealand. On 6 February 1840, Captain William Hobson and around 40 Maori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi. This treaty is considered by many to be New Zealand's founding document, but differing interpretations of the Maori and English versions of the text have meant that it continues to be a source of dispute. Britain was challenged again by France under Napoleon, in a struggle that, unlike previous wars, represented a contest of ideologies between the two nations. It was not only Britain's position on the world stage that was threatened: Napoleon threatened to invade Britain itself, just as his armies had overrun many countries of continental Europe. The Napoleonic Wars were therefore ones in which Britain invested large amounts of capital and resources to win. French ports were blockaded by the Royal Navy, which won a decisive victory over a Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in 1805. Overseas colonies were attacked and occupied, including those of the Netherlands, which was annexed by Napoleon in 1810. France was finally defeated by a coalition of European armies in 1815. Britain was again the beneficiary of peace treaties: France ceded the Ionian Islands, Malta (which it had occupied in 1797 and 1798 respectively), Seychelles, Mauritius, St Lucia, and Tobagoto Britain. Under increasing pressure from the abolitionist movement, Britain enacted the Slave Trade Act in 1807 which abolished the slave trade in the Empire. In 1808, Sierra Leone was designated an official British colony for freed slaves. The Slavery Abolition Act passed in 1833 made not just the slave trade but slavery itself illegal, emancipating all slaves in the British Empire on 1 August 1834. Between 1815 and 1914, a period referred to as Britain's "imperial century" by some historians, around 10,000,000 sq mi (25,899,881 sq km) of territory and roughly 400 million people were added to the British Empire. Victory over Napoleon left Britain without any serious international rival, other than Russia in central Asia. Unchallenged at sea, Britain adopted the role of global policeman, a state of affairs later known as the Pax Britannica, and a foreign policy of "splendid isolation". Alongside the formal control it exerted over its own colonies, Britain's dominant position in world trade meant that it effectively controlled the economies of many nominally independent countries, such as China, Argentina and Siam, which has been characterised by some historians as "informal empire". British imperial strength was underpinned by the steamship and the telegraph, new technologies invented in the second half of the 19th century, allowing it to control and defend the Empire. By 1902, the British Empire was linked together by a network of telegraph cables, the so-called All Red Line. British policy in Asia during the 19th century was chiefly concerned with protecting and expanding India, viewed as its most important colony and the key to the rest of Asia. The East India Company drove the expansion of the British Empire in Asia. The Company's army had first joined forces with the Royal Navy during the Seven Years' War, and the two continued to cooperate in arenas outside India: the eviction of Napoleon from Egypt (1799), the capture of Java from the Netherlands (1811), the acquisition of Singapore (1819) and Malacca (1824) and the defeat of Burma (1826). From its base in India, the Company had also been engaged in an increasingly profitable opium export trade to China since the 1730s. This trade, illegal since it was outlawed by the Qing dynasty in 1729, helped reverse the trade imbalances resulting from the British imports of tea, which saw large outflows of silver from Britain to China. In 1839, the confiscation by the Chinese authorities at Canton of 20,000 chests of opium led Britain to attack China in the First Opium War, and the seizure by Britain of the island of Hong Kong, at that time a minor settlement. The end of the Company was precipitated by a mutiny of sepoys against their British commanders, due in part to the tensions caused by British attempts to westernise India. The rebellion took six months to suppress, with heavy loss of life on both sides. Afterwards the British government assumed direct control over India, ushering in the period known as the British Raj, where an appointed governor-general administered India and Queen Victoria was crowned the Empress of India. The East India Company was dissolved the following year, in 1858. India suffered a series of serious crop failures in the late-19th century, leading to widespread famines in which at least 10 million people died. The East India Company had failed to implement any coordinated policy to deal with the famines during its period of rule. This changed during the Raj, in which commissions were set up after each famine to investigate the causes and implement new policies, which took until the early 1900s to have an effect. During the 19th century, Britain and Russia vied to fill the power vacuums that had been left by the declining Ottoman, Persian and Qing Chinese empires. This rivalry in Eurasia came to be known as the "Great Game". As far as Britain was concerned, the defeats inflicted by Russia on Persia and Turkey in the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828) and Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829) demonstrated its imperial ambitions and capabilities, and stoked fears in Britain of an overland invasion of India. In 1839, Britain moved to pre-empt this by invading Afghanistan, but the First Anglo-Afghan War was a disaster for Britain. When Russia invaded the Turkish Balkans in 1853, fears of Russian dominance in the Mediterranean and Middle East led Britain and France to invade the Crimean Peninsula in order to destroy Russian naval capabilities. The ensuing Crimean War (1854–56), which involved new techniques of modern warfare, and was the only global war fought between Britain and another imperial power during the Pax Britannica, was a resounding defeat for Russia. The situation remained unresolved in Central Asia for two more decades, with Britain annexing Baluchistan in 1876 and Russia Kirghizia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. For a while it appeared that another war would be inevitable, but the two countries reached an agreement on their respective spheres of influence in the region in 1878, and on all outstanding matters in 1907 with the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente. The destruction of the Russian Navy at the Battle of Port Arthur during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05 also limited its threat to the British. The Dutch East India Company had founded the Cape Colony on the southern tip of Africa in 1652 as a way station for its ships travelling to and from its colonies in the East Indies. Britain formally acquired the colony, and its large Afrikaner (or Boer) population in 1806, having occupied it in 1795 in order to prevent it falling into French hands, following the invasion of the Netherlands by France. British immigration began to rise after 1820, and pushed thousands of Boers, resentful of British rule, northwards to found their own—mostly short-lived—independent republics, during the Great Trek of the late 1830s and early 1840s. In the process the Voortrekkers clashed repeatedly with the British, who had their own agenda with regard to colonial expansion in South Africa and with several African polities, including those of the Sotho and the Zulu nations. Eventually the Boers established two republics which had a longer lifespan: the South African Republic or Transvaal Republic (1852–77; 1881–1902) and the Orange Free State (1854–1902). In 1902 Britain completed its military occupation of the Transvaal and Free State by concluding a treaty with the two Boer Republics following the Second Boer War 1899–1902. In 1869 the Suez Canal was opened under Napoleon III, linking the Mediterranean with the Indian Ocean. The Canal was at first opposed by the British, but once open its strategic value was recognised quickly. In 1875, the Conservative government of Benjamin Disraeli bought the indebted Egyptian ruler Ismail Pasha's 44 percent shareholding in the Suez Canal for £4 million. Although this did not grant outright control of the strategic waterway, it did give Britain leverage. Joint Anglo-French financial control over Egypt ended in outright British occupation in 1882. The French were still majority shareholders and attempted to weaken the British position, but a compromise was reached with the 1888 Convention of Constantinople. This came into force in 1904 and made the Canal neutral territory, but de facto control was exercised by the British whose forces occupied the area until 1954. As French, Belgian and Portuguese activity in the lower Congo River region threatened to undermine orderly penetration of tropical Africa, the Berlin Conference of 1884–85 sought to regulate the competition between the European powers in what was called the "Scramble for Africa" by defining "effective occupation" as the criterion for international recognition of territorial claims. The scramble continued into the 1890s, and caused Britain to reconsider its decision in 1885 to withdraw from Sudan. A joint force of British and Egyptian troops defeated the Madhist Army in 1896, and rebuffed a French attempted invasion at Fashoda in 1898. Sudan was made an Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, a joint protectorate in name, but a British colony in reality. British gains in southern and East Africa prompted Cecil Rhodes, pioneer of British expansion in Africa, to urge a "Cape to Cairo" railway linking the strategically important Suez Canal to the mineral-rich South. In 1888 Rhodes with his privately owned British South Africa Company occupied and annexed territories named after him, Rhodesia.

During his voyage, Cook also visited , first discovered by Dutch sailors in 1642, and claimed the and in 1769 and 1770 respectively. Initially, interaction between the native population and Europeans was limited to the trading of goods. European settlement increased through the early decades of the 19th century, with numerous trading stations established, especially in the North. In 1839, the announced plans to buy large tracts of land and establish colonies in New Zealand. On 6 February 1840, Captain and around 40 Maori chiefs signed the . This treaty is considered by many to be New Zealand's founding document, but differing interpretations of the Maori and English versions of the text have meant that it continues to be a source of dispute.

In his way home, he landed into Antarctica, which he helped claim it for Britain

Britain was challenged again by France under , in a struggle that, unlike previous wars, represented a contest of ideologies between the two nations. It was not only Britain's position on the world stage that was threatened: Napoleon threatened to invade Britain itself, just as his armies had overrun many countries of .

The were therefore ones in which Britain invested large amounts of capital and resources to win. French ports were blockaded by the , which won a decisive victory over a Franco-Spanish fleet at in 1805. Overseas colonies were attacked and occupied, including those of the Netherlands, which was annexed by Napoleon in 1810. France was finally defeated by a coalition of European armies in 1815. Britain was again the beneficiary of peace treaties: France ceded the , (which it had occupied in 1797 and 1798 respectively), , , , and ; Spain ceded ; the Netherlands , and the . Britain returned , , , , and to France, and , and to the Netherlands.

Under increasing pressure from the movement, Britain enacted the in 1807 which abolished the in the Empire. In 1808, was designated an official British colony for freed slaves. The passed in 1833 made not just the slave trade but slavery itself illegal, emancipating all slaves in the British Empire on 1 August 1834.

Between 1815 and 1914, a period referred to as Britain's "imperial century" by some historians, around 10,000,000 sq mi (25,899,881 km) of territory and roughly 400 million people were added to the British Empire. Victory over Napoleon left Britain without any serious international rival, other than Russia in central Asia. Unchallenged at sea, Britain adopted the role of global policeman, a state of affairs later known as the Pax Britannica, and a foreign policy of "". Alongside the formal control it exerted over its own colonies, Britain's dominant position in world trade meant that it effectively controlled the economies of many nominally independent countries, such as , and , which has been characterised by some historians as "".

British imperial strength was underpinned by the and the , new technologies invented in the second half of the 19th century, allowing it to control and defend the Empire. By 1902, the British Empire was linked together by a network of telegraph cables, the so-called .

British policy in Asia during the 19th century was chiefly concerned with protecting and expanding India, viewed as its most important colony and the key to the rest of Asia. The drove the expansion of the British Empire in Asia. The Company's army had first joined forces with the Royal Navy during the Seven Years' War, and the two continued to cooperate in arenas outside India: the eviction of Napoleon from (1799), the capture of from the Netherlands (1811), the acquisition of (1819) and (1824) and the defeat of (1826).

Captain Cook in 1815 (not killed in Hawaii), after claiming Antarctica and Oceania for Britain, he visited Canton. He wanted China to trade with the West, but Qianlong refused. So he threatened to invade China if not so China had no choice to accept it. Unlike OTL's emperor Qianlong, the Son of Heaven agreed, but also demanded the British to support China with the most modern technologies, for the emperor was not yet corrupted by Heshan and lacked imperial arrogance. The trade relations between Britain and China improved (though China was rather interested in technology than commerce ), and Chinese scholars should travel abroad and study the ways of the West, despite the protests of the old Confucian gentry. On the other hand, the spreading of Christianity was now accepted. By the 6th year of Jiajing (Qianlong's successor), most of these scholars returned- indeed, their mission was a success. The Chinese still regarded the British as an inferior, barbaric race but their technological advance was held in high esteem, yet Western political thought was confronted with mistrust by Confucian scholars and officials. Army and navy were thoroughly reformed and (given that corruption would have been not that widespread) the administration's efficiency increased. Further delegations were sent to the West, especially after the Napoleonic Wars. Now other countries than Britain were interested in the Chinese market, and the technological transfer went on. By the late 1820s the Chinese government exploited Manchuria's hills, rich in iron ore and coal. A railroad network was introduced, and the army further modernised (due to China's exports, there were enough funds to do so), but the old division in Eight Banners and Green Standard Army remained. Ironclads, heavy artillery, etc. were now no longer imported but produced by China herself, while military experts from Britain, France and the German states were invited to improve the army's military strength. Imposing the reform of the Qing military system proved to be a strenuos struggle; finally a few Elite Troops, modeled after the Prussian army were established. They were directly under the command of the xin da jiang jun, a new military rank. The Western-style Chinese units thus formed a separate part of the Army; of course concurrence with the Eight Banners and the Green Standard Army were to be expected, which were modern. Although China's economic policy was very tolerant (compared to OTL), the British income was still too low- too many shillings ended up in the Imperial coffers! China was still the world's most prosperous Empire and endowed with a considerable military power, but foreign traders and missionaries were still harshly treated- at least from the Westerners' view. Finally, the smuggling of opium, not officially backed by British traders, formed a reason for Chinese intervention: in 1840, the new Governor of Guangzhou, Lin Zexu ordered the destruction of large opium amounts.

The Opium Wars were against Britain and China. Thanks to their new army and navy, Britain was defeated and was forced to respect the ban of opium, so all trade routes of Opium to China were closed.  

The end of the Company was precipitated by a mutiny of against their British commanders, due in part to the tensions caused by British attempts to westernzse India. The took six months to suppress, with heavy loss of life on both sides. Afterward the British government assumed direct control over India, ushering in the period known as the , where an appointed administered India and was crowned the Empress of India. The East India Company was dissolved the following year, in 1858.

India suffered a series of serious crop failures in the late-19th century, leading to widespread in which at least 10 million people died. The East India Company had failed to implement any coordinated policy to deal with the famines during its period of rule. This changed during the Raj, in which commissions were set up after each famine to investigate the causes and implement new policies, which took until the early 1900s to have an effect.

During the 19th century, Britain and vied to fill the power vacuums that had been left by the declining empires. As far as Britain was concerned, the defeats inflicted by Russia on Persia and Turkey in the and , but the was a disaster for Britain. When Russia invaded the Turkish in 1853, fears of Russian dominance in the and led Britain and France to invade the in order to destroy Russian naval capabilities. The ensuing , which involved new techniques of , and was the only fought between Britain and another during the Pax Britannica, was a resounding defeat for Russia. The situation remained unresolved in Central Asia for two more decades, with Britain annexing in 1876 and Russia , and . For a while it appeared that another war would be inevitable, but the two countries reached an agreement on their respective in the region in 1878, and on all outstanding matters in 1907 with the signing of the . The destruction of the during the of 1904–05 also limited its threat to the British. and demonstrated its imperial ambitions and capabilities, and stoked fears in Britain of an overland invasion of India.

The Dutch East India Company had founded the on the southern tip of in 1652 as a way station for its ships travelling to and from its colonies in the . Britain formally acquired the colony, and its large (or ) population in 1806, having occupied it in 1795 in order to prevent it falling into French hands, following the invasion of the Netherlands by France. British immigration began to rise after 1820, and pushed thousands of Boers, resentful of British rule, northwards to found their own—mostly short-lived—independent republics, during the of the late 1830s and early 1840s. In the process the clashed repeatedly with the British, who had their own agenda with regard to colonial expansion in and with several African polities, including those of the and the nations. Eventually the Boers established two republics which had a longer lifespan: the or Transvaal Republic (1852–77; 1881–1902) and the (1854–1902). In 1902 Britain completed its of the Transvaal and Free State by concluding a treaty with the two following the 1899–1902.

In 1869 the Suez Canal was opened under , linking the Mediterranean with the . The Canal was at first opposed by the British, but once open its strategic value was recognised quickly. In 1875, the government of bought the indebted ruler 's 44 percent shareholding in the for £4 million. Although this did not grant outright control of the strategic waterway, it did give Britain leverage. Joint Anglo-French financial control over Egypt ended in outright British occupation in 1882. The French were still majority shareholders and attempted to weaken the British position, but a compromise was reached with the 1888 . This came into force in 1904 and made the Canal neutral territory, but control was exercised by the British whose forces occupied the area until 1954.

As French, and activity in the lower region threatened to undermine orderly penetration of tropical Africa, the of 1884–85 sought to regulate the competition between the European powers in what was called the "" by defining "effective occupation" as the criterion for international recognition of territorial claims. The scramble continued into the 1890s, and caused Britain to reconsider its decision in 1885 to withdraw from . A joint force of British and Egyptian troops defeated the in 1896, and rebuffed a French attempted invasion at in 1898. Sudan was made an , a joint protectorate in name, but a British colony in reality.

British gains in southern and prompted , pioneer of British expansion in Africa, to urge a "" railway linking the strategically important to the mineral-rich South. In 1888 Rhodes with his privately owned occupied and annexed territories named after him, .

Conquest of Much of the World  (1853-1901)

Britain wanted to be the greatest power on Earth, so Victoria led an attack on the Northern Europe area with over one million men to the Kingdom of Denmark, two million to Northern Europe, and thirty million to the very Northwest of Russia near the border of present-day Finland. As a result, the invasion was successful, as a result, Britain ruled all of Northern Europe and its other territories. 

Victoria was also looking forward to the Low Countries of Europe and German Rhineland. She led and ten hundred million army led by General Kingston. They fought the Dutch and Belgians and Germans. The invasion again succeeded.

Germany was also forced to give up its colonies and Belgian Congo was annexed to Britain.

Their invasion of Spain and Portugal was a bigger blast. The remaining nine hundred million fores from the conquest of the Low Countries and Rhineland. Spanish and Portuguese forces tried to stop it but were completely outnumbered. The army also invaded southeast France and Italian province of Nice, and Monaco. As a result, France was to give up its colonies and Monaco to Britain, and Spanish and Portuguese territories also annexed to Britain. European Africa had been under British control, though Liberia and Ethiopia were independent, so they took control of them.

British control on all five continents mean Britain equals world power. Meanwhile, Victoria was looking forward to control all of the Indian Ocean Rim Asian Countries. They did control colonies in Asia owned by other European powers. So they took over the whole Middle East, Siam, Nepal, and Bhutan. China agreed to give Tibet, the Xi River Delta, Taiwan, Hainan, and Cheju to British claim, but still under Chinese rule.

Japan agreed to control the islands (except the four largest ones) of their control.

Following the Crimean War, the Siberian peninsula which is next to the Beringian Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk with Russia's islands, Crimea, and Southern Southeastern Russia (thus controlling the area of Moldova and all lands bordering the Black Sea and the sea itself), and a part of Northwest Kazakhstan. Britain also conquered the Southern Italy, and all countries in Southeastern Europe to the border of Austria-Hungary.

Britain controlled five continents and much of Asia and Europe, which became the wealthiest nation in the world and the "workshop" of the world.

By the turn of the 20th century, fears by Victoria and Albert had begun to grow in Britain that it would no longer be able to defend the metropole and the entirety of the Empire while at the same time maintaining the policy of "splendid isolation". Victoria worked to make reforms to prevent a civil war. First, she banned slavery all over the empire. The jobs done by those slaves and servants, became jobs reserved only for Asian and African people. This time, a bigger amount of money was paid. The second reform was to ban segregation and let everyone in their empire have equal rights. The third thing, is that no matter which level of society you are, foreingers (other types of people in their empire) can go to a higher level and own property.

But things weren't going perfectly despite these efforts. Germany was rising rapidly as a military and industrial power and was now seen as the most likely opponent in any future war. The German navy, thanks to the invention of their crafty invention the submarine, became the most dangerous navy in Europe. Britain formed an alliance with Japan and China in 1902, and its old enemy France, Italy and Russia in 1904.

First World War

Britain's fears of war with Germany were realized to be true in 1914 with the outbreak of the First World War. The British declaration of war on Germany and its allies also committed the colonies, which provided invaluable military, financial and material support. The Triple Alliance has Germany, Switzerland (including Liechtenstein) and Austria-Hungary. The British invasion of Austria-Hungary led to the annexation of it with Southern Germany and Switzerland.

In 1915, Britain sacked Berlin to pay of the empire's war debts. The war ended at that time. The Entente won.


Note: This is a complete, so the rest is coming soon

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