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Brief History of the Relationship of the Scottish & Welsh Kingdoms
The Scottish Kingdom was an early ally of the Welsh, with Scottish privateers fighting for Owain Glyndwr's cause during the war of independence. Following the full restoration of Welsh independence and the Treaty of London (1409), Wales' orbit was firmly within the English sphere.
As the Welsh kings grew in confidence a new relationship with Scotland was formed in 1492 with the Treaty of Ravenscraig which was meant as a defensive treaty with the Scots.
The Scots own relationship with the English continued to be rocky and with the death of James IV of Scotland at Flodden, Wales decided to align themselves again with the English (Treaty of Woodstock 1513), although Queen Elen continued with a policy of friendship with Scotland when she married Earl Lennox MacGreggor
With the death of Elizabeth of England (1603) the Stuart kings of Scotland became the heirs to the English throne, with James VI acceding the throne as James I of England.
The United Kingdom of England & Scotland
With the accession of James to the English throne a new period for Scottish history started.
The Welsh (under Dafydd IV) negotiated the Treaty of Windsor as a treaty of friendship between the two kingdoms.
This was helped by the marriage of the Welsh king to one of the daughters of King James of England & Scotland. This resulted in the Welsh and Anglo-Scottish royal families becoming related with Hywel III being a nephew to Charles I of England, which in turn helped foster greater friendship between both countries.
During the Civil War, Wales sided first with Charles and then via a more neutral stance the Government. This was a period of instability in terms of political relations between the countries. Trade continued to flow as before but in terms of politics, one month Wales and England were allies, the next they were at war. Events oscillated until the advent of James II.
With the prospect of two Catholic Monarchs, the English removed James for William of Orange, but Wales continued to support the Jacobite Cause. With this, whilst not providing a permanent breach, the English Parliament viewed Wales with distrust. Something increased when in 1703 the Welsh parliament was removed leaving just a Catholic Autocrat on the throne. With the rise of Dafydd of Wales there entered a new period of low Anglo-Welsh relations with Dafydd laying claim to the English throne.
The first major test was the Gower Uprising. Although Wales was a Roman Catholic nation there were pockets of protestants throughout the country. Mainly in the English border regions, there were also sizable communities in Gower (Welsh Gwyr). In 1709 a new protestant tax caused the Gower to rise in rebellion against Dafydd and the English government watched in dismay as the Welsh king raised mercenaries to put down the rebellion. Parliament complained long and loud against the Welsh actions, and trust in the Welsh king dropped.
Whilst this was happening, a far more important crisis was also developing. The Act of Succession and Exclusion crisis coupled with the Gower Uprising brought Anglo-Welsh relations to a complete nadir. Dafydd was a Roman Catholic heir to both the English and Scottish thrones via his descent from Margaret Tudor (Queen of Scotland but born Princess of England) and James V. Whilst the Act of Succession 1701 excluded all Catholics from the English throne, the fact remained that Dafydd was an active threat as a ruling monarch of a neighbouring country. The exclusion crisis in 1707 prompted Dafydd to press his claim to the now combined Anglo-Scottish throne. Between 1707 and 1718 he added the arms of the United Kingdom to his own and during this period there was little high level contact between courts.
Welsh interference in the succession crisis of 1714 further raised the spectre of an aggressive Catholic nation on the English flanks. With the death of Queen Anne, the succession was fixed on George of Hanover, Dafydd attempted to aid James III with men, arms and money, but was too stingy to make much of an impact on the Uprising of 1715. The simple attempt however was enough to persuade the new king, George, that Dafydd and the Welsh were to be considered enemies to his throne. This was reinforced by Dafydd's increasing rearmament of the Welsh Army. Here though the Welsh misjudged the situation. With the Welsh rearmament only a few years old, the regiments undermanned, the arsenals under stocked, and the logistical system still incomplete Dafydd decided to aid yet again James III.
The Empire of the British Isles
Between 1721 and 1796 the Anglo-Scottish kingdom ruled the entirety of the British Isles as the Empire of the British Isles. The Treaty of Manchester (1721) saw the remaining senior Welsh nobles in Wales signing the treaty. This treaty allowed the full union of the Welsh crown with the Anglo-Scottish crown, creating the Emperor of the British Isles. The first Emperor was George I of the United Kingdom, who became "George, by the Grace of God, King of the United Kingdom of England & Scotland, King of Ireland, Wales and France, Emperor of the British Isles, Defender of the Faith, etc".
The Empire continued until the restoration of full Welsh independence in 1796 when its use as reference to the Anglo-Scottish state ceased. The kingdom remained known as the United Kingdom of England & Scotland and after the Irish Union as The United Kingdoms (or United Kingdom of England-Scotland and Ireland). As the European colonial era started in earnest, although it was a title claimed by the Welsh kingdom, the Anglo-Scottish empire was more often referred to as the British Empire.
In 1936 George V of England & Scotland died, and his eldest son, the right-wing leaning Edward, Duke of Cornwall, succeeded him to the Anglo-Scottish Throne. As monarch he was indifferent to Wales, knowing Iago for the Anglophobe he was, although the two of them shared many a viewpoint. During the Great War (English: World War Two) he was tied by Government policy to gainsay his natural leanings to the political right. After the war however Edward was enthusiastic in his attempt to help rebuild the Anglo-Scottish state. In this he was aided by his brothers, the Dukes of York and Gloucester. With the death of York in 1952, Elizabeth of York became the default heir, though this was not recognised by elevation to the Duchy of Cornwall. York's daughter, Princess Elizabeth was a rising star in the 1950's & 1960's. Seen as the young ambassador for the House of Windsor her personal popularity rose whilst the kings remained constant. In 1964, the king was finally able to publicly acknowledge his mistress (Wallis Simpson), though the problem of marriage and a heir still dogged the King. In 1969, against the established laws of succession, Edward formally adopted Charles of York, Princess Elizabeth's eldest son. Raising him to the position of Duke of Cornwall and having an Act of Parliament passed legalising the alteration to the laws of succession (which should have resulted in Elizabeth succeeding him).
During the 1960's, the state of the Union between England and Scotland began to deteriorate. Scottish politicians began to agitate for a return of a Scottish Parliament to redress what they saw as the abandonment of Scotland by the English dominated Union Parliament in Westminster. To counter these Republican and Nationalistic drives north of the border, Edward adopted Elizabeth's eldest daughter. Anne was raised to the rank of title of Princess of Scotland & Great Steward. These were traditionally the titles granted to the heir of the Scottish throne and although the Letters Patent, granting these titles were clear on the now subservient nature of these titles to that of the Duke of Rothesay (Charles' Scottish title) it was an important move to countering moves to independence.
1974 to 2012
Charles succeeded to the British Throne as Charles III. As king he has had a troubled reign, with increasing territorial ambitions by both Cornwall and Scotland. In Scotland, since her elevation to the title of Princess of Scotland & Great Steward of Scotland, Princess Anne had become a champion of Scotland.
Granted by her Letters Patent the use of the Palace of Holyrood during the 1980's Anne began to actively agitate for greater Scottish political freedoms and in the 1990's she championed the drive towards the Referendum which led ultimately to the re-creation of the Scottish Parliament in 1999. Feted by the SNP she became the visible symbol of Scotland, much to the displeasure of her brother in London. The strains of trying to maintain the Union between the two states began to drain Charles health however. In 2008 he came close to abdicating in favor of his eldest son, William. As the new century progressed. the SNP in Scotland gained ground in each election, with Anne acting as Princess of Scotland and opening each new session of Parliament and acting more and more as a monarch of an independent country. In 2011, the SNP finally gained total control of the Scottish Parliament and began pushing for a dissolution of the Union. As a result in Scotland, Anne began to be referred to as Anne II of Scotland in her own right, although she still only referred to herself as Princess of Scotland. The continuing pressures on the United Kingdom continued to dominate the internal political dimension with family "conference" becoming heated as William, Duke of Cornwall defended his fathers position as King of the United Kingdom against his aunt's position as Princess of Scotland and increasingly de facto Queen of Scots. In 2010, Anne's son, Prince Peter, Duke of Edinburgh, began to be involved with these conferences.
Restoration of the Kingdom of Scotland
The Scottish referendum of 2012 saw the SNP and the "Yes" vote win by a slim majority. The final results saw Scotland vote 58% to 42% in favor of independence. The Scottish First Minister, Alex Salmond, led the negotiations with the Westminster Government and on the 1st January 2015 following the conclusion of those talks Scotland formally declared its separation from the former United Kingdom. The following day, 2nd January 2015, Anne was declared as Queen of Scots as Anne II with her son, Peter, now recognised as HRH The Prince Peter, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Lord of the Isles and Baron Renfrew.
Relations between the now separate kingdoms has remained cordial if sometimes strained, with Charles and Anne no longer on speaking terms following her acceptance of the offer from the Scottish government of the throne of Scotland. The relationship became further strained when Anne II declared that the royal house would be named Phillips, since this was the last name of her heir.
Monarchs of Scotland before James VI
Kings of Scotland
- Robert II
- Robert III
- James I
- James II
- James III
- James IV
- James V
- Mary I
Monarchs of the United Kingdom of England & Scotland and then Scotland
Kings of England and Kings of Scotland (pre-Union)
- James I & VI
- Charles I
- Charles II
- James II & VII
- William III & Mary II
- Anne (last monarch holding the separate titles of Queen of England and Queen of Scots)
Kings of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland
- Anne (Became the first Queen of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland)
- George I - 1st Emperor of the British Isles, King of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and France
- George II - 2nd Emperor of the British Isles, King of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and France
- George III - 3rd Emperor of the British Isles, King of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and France
- George IV
- William IV
- Edward VI
- George V
- Edward VII
- Charles III
Kings of Scotland
- Anne II (First Queen of the separated Kingdom of Scotland)