The Kingdom of England
My'terneth Pow Sows
Timeline: Welsh History Post Glyndwr
Flag of England England Coat of Arms by Fenn o manic
Flag of the Kingdom of England National Arms of England

Dieu et Mon Droit (English)

Anthem "God Save the King"
Capital London
Largest city London
Other cities Manchester, York
  others Cornish & Welsh (in Border Regions)
  others Roman Catholic (minority)
Government Constitutional Monarchy
  legislature Parliament (Houses of Commons & Lords)
King of England Charles III
  Royal house: Windsor
Currency Pound Sterling

Charles III

With continuing pressure from the people of Scotland for independence, with the support of his sister Anne, Charles III had a difficult time keeping the two kingdoms united. Finally having to give his official support for the Scottish referendum, Charles was giving serious thought to abdicating to his eldest son, William, Duke of Cornwall.

Separation from Scotland

The Scottish referendum of 2012 saw the SNP and the "Yes" vote win by a slim majority. The final results saw Scotland vote 58% to 42% in favor of independence. The Scottish First Minister, Alex Salmond, led the negotiations with the Westminster Government and on the 1st January 2015 following the conclusion of those talks Scotland formally declared its separation from the former United Kingdom. The following day, 2nd January 2015, Anne was declared as Queen of Scots as Anne II.

Relations between the now separate kingdoms has remained cordial if sometimes strained, with Charles and Anne no longer on speaking terms following her acceptance of the offer from the Scottish government of the throne of Scotland.

The Cornish Question

The South-West of England

Map of Devon and Cornwall

The English counties of Devon and Cornwall (Welsh: Dyfnaint a Chernyw) have since Owain Glyndwr's first success' in the 1st Welsh War of Independence proven to be problematic towards the English Crown. Since the successes of Rhodri in the 2nd Anglo-Welsh wars whereby the territories of Gwlad yr Haf and more specifically Dyfnaint Glan Hafren (formerly Northern Somerset) were added to the Welsh Crown then, the "Cornish Question" has remained on the English political scene. The close presence of the Welsh in the North Coast territory has helped to bolster the idea of Cornish identity and maintained the Cornish language into the 21st Century.

During the 2nd Welsh War of Independence there was a movement both within Wales and Cornwall itself to extend the war to the English South West and for some members of the Welsh political elite the idea of "Aduniad Prydeinig" or British Reunion has continued well into the modern era. Following the formal restoration of Welsh independence in 1796, the Welsh State had to renounce any claims to "British" kingship and any claim to any Cornish title (some monarchs had previously included the title Dug Cernyw with their regnal titles). Although this formal renouncement was concluded in 1796, the close geographical nature of the Welsh North Coast to Cornwall meant that a close local relationship was maintained. During the reforms of the 1880's and 1890's when Welsh education was undergoing a radical overhaul, philanthropists from Wales (including Tomos ap Ceredig Tomos of Caerodor) set up schools in Cornwall and Devon dedicated to educating in Cornish. Such moves were designed to counter English moves to educate the Cornish language into extinction (laws passed in 1881 tried to ban the use of Cornish in schools).

Linguistic Map of Devon and Cornwall

Linguistic Map of Cornwall and Devon

As such the Cornish language survived into the 20th Century in rude health. The schools of Dyfnaint a Chernyw today educate in three languages. Within Cornwall proper, over half of schools are Cornish medium schools teaching both Cornish as a first language with Welsh and English as secondary languages. In North Devon and Torridge almost a quarter of schools are Cornish medium with strong Welsh language links. Southern Devon has some Cornish medium schools but most of the English medium schools offer a Cornish or Welsh language qualification.

With the 1920's and the involvement of Wales in the Irish War of Independence there grew in Cornwall & Devon itself a home movement dedicated to at least home rule if not political union with Wales. The hope was that Iago would aid his Celtic cousins in the same way that he had aided the Greeks in their re-conquest of Constantinople and the Irish in their fight against the English. In spite of pressure from the Lords of Dyfnaint Glan Hafren and Gwlad yr Haf, Iago resisted adding yet another war to his name. Following the outbreak of war in Europe, Cornish demands for self government were shelved in the greater fight against the Nazi threat.

The period of 1945-65 was one of decline for Cornish political groups. Welsh investment continued to flow across the border and helped to sustain the local South-West economy but little else. During the late 60's a new generation began the new fight for Cornish identity. Men such as Talan Dynham led new parties such as the Cornish Republican Party whilst others still fought for union with Wales (such as Jowan Nankervis and the Union Party). By the 1990's Kernweig Repobilak Withak (Cornish Republican Party) had two MP's elected and the neighbouring Densher Withak (Devon Party) whilst not having any MP's yet has several councilors to its name. With the re-establishment of a Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh and more recently the Scottish Kingdom under Anne II, there has come increasing pressure from Cornish Parties, MPs and pressure groups for some form of devolved administration. There has also been for the first time in generations active support for such groups from the mainstream Welsh political parties . The question remains how much devolution and where. Large parts of western and northern Devon are as Cornish as Cornwall but to allow a devolved regional set up to border the Welsh State would raise even more questions on the future of England's remaining "Celtic" fringe.

Monarchs of England, then the United Kingdom of England & Scotland and then again England

The below lists show the kings and queens of the two kingdoms of England and Scotland. The later only from the time of the Stuart Union (1601-1703)

Kings of England 1409-1601

  1. Henry V
  2. Henry VI (1st Reign)
  3. Edward IV (1st Reign)
  4. Henry VI (2nd Reign)
  5. Edward IV (2nd Reign)
  6. Edward V
  7. Richard III
  8. Henry VII
  9. Henry VIII
  10. Henry IX
  11. Mary I
  12. Elisabeth

Kings of England and Kings of Scotland (pre-Union)

  1. James I & VI
  2. Charles I
  3. Interregnum
  4. Charles II
  5. James II & VII
  6. William III & Mary II
  7. Anne (last monarch holding the separate titles of Queen of England and Queen of Scots)

Kings of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland

  1. Anne (Became the first Queen of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland)
  2. George I - 1st Emperor of the British Isles, King of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and France
  3. George II - 2nd Emperor of the British Isles, King of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and France
  4. George III - 3rd Emperor of the British Isles, King of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and France
  5. George IV
  6. William IV
  7. Victoria
  8. Edward VI
  9. George V
  10. Edward VII
  11. Charles III

Kings of England

  1. Charles III (First King of the separated Kingdom of England)

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