In our timeline, World War 1 was one of the most devastating conflicts in world history. However, it also advanced warplanes, brought us the tank and got rid of cavalry. So, what if WW1 did not happen?
This Happened Instead Of WW1
In OTL, Franz Ferdinand was assassinated leading to WW1, but what if his assassination failed? Well, tensions between Austro-Hungary and Serbia would have boiled but it would not result in war.
In 1917, there's the February Revolution which was a mostly bloodless effort. In OTL, the October Revolution followed the same year due to the leader of the February Revolution wanting to continue fighting WW1. But without WW1, there is no demand for Communist utopia where the worker is on par with the top 1%. Meanwhile, Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin live normal lives and never make history.
The Ottoman Empire still collapses though whether or not it happens in 1922 remains in question. Sadly, the Armenian genocide still occurs as well as abuse against the Kurds.
"Roaring Twenties" and Depressing Thirties
There's no major economic boom in the 1920s as that was the result of the end of WW1 (hence the quotes). However, the great depression still occurs but not as extreme. Instead, it's the panic of 1929 where the stock market crashes and unemployment soars, yet it doesn't become a trademark of that decade. Every country suffers from the great recession particularly the capitalist United States. The economies begin to improve after the 1930s were over.
The formation of the Russian Republic inspired all the oppressed ethnic groups in Austro-Hungary to do the same. However, this revolution was put down with the help of the Germans. Italy never goes Fascist as that was a result of WW1.
The Fighting Forties
One might think that without the Nazis that Germany would have never researched rocket technology. This is not the case as the German Empire was looking for new ways to be superior to Britain, France and Russia. The German scientists who worked on the atomic bomb and rocket technology do not disappear simply because Hitler did not rise. In fact, in OTL, Nazi Germany was working on the atomic bomb but put their plans on hold due to WWII. Without antisemitism or WW2, the German scientists stay at Germany and develop the greatest weapon ever conceived by mankind. Tested on the empty plains of Namibia (colony of Germany) in 1942, this weapon created a very bright flash which could be seen by even blind people. The tribes people believed that the white colonizers have incurred the wrath of the spirits causing them to further resent them. After the success of the atomic bomb, the Germans drop another explosion from a plane, only this time, filmed for all the public to see. This frightened the entente powers; Germany, Austro-Hungary, and Italy were outgunned but made up for it with a weapon capable of crippling entire cities. To say that the triple entente went through a central power scare was an understatement. Albert Einstein even regretted discovering E=MC^2 saying that if other countries discovered nuclear weapons and started a war, it would mean total destruction. Germany builds more bombs (Namibia has lots of uranium) and forces Belgium to cede Congo (DRC today) and surrender their sovereignty. Germany used the third largest colony in Africa to tap into its great wealth. There was a great migration of Germans towards the Congo - much like Namibia.
Thousands of miles away across the Atlantic Ocean, the attack on Pearl Harbor still happens as does the resulting Pacific War. The US is able to defeat Japan faster without any troops in Europe (at least until they get to the mainland). They however do not have the atomic bomb and so around ten million lives are lost taking the main island ending in 1945. Japan is not as peaceful and harbors a grudge against America as a result. Japan developed a submarine which could carry up to three planes. In OTL, they were sunk by the US as a result of the Cold War (they had an agreement of Russia to share tech). Without the Cold War (as we know it), the US is free to incorporate these submarine carriers and possible build on it.
There is no state of Israel as the holocaust is much smaller in scale and Jews could simply flee to other parts of Europe. Thus no Israeli-Arab War or Six Day War. However, there are still Jewish communities dwelling in Palestine.
The Nuclear Proliferation of the Fifties
The fifties were a time of uncertainty for Europe. Belgium gave up its sovereignty to avoid destruction. Germany was also working on ballistic missiles since British and French air power would keep a nuclear bomb from ever being successfully detonated there. A sigh of relief broke through the Triple Entente when British intelligence recovered the blueprints for the atomic bomb and built one of their own in 1952. In 1955, France developed the bomb followed by Russia in 1959. The reason it takes longer to catch up to the sole nuclear weapons holder than in OTL was because in OTL, the soviet union had access to ex-Nazi scientists who knew rocket technology and gave them a head start. The Brits had the same resources but weren't as motivated because they had the US. In this timeline, almost nobody outside of Germany knew about the inner workings of rockets or nuclear technology so they had to start from scratch or use intelligence services to gain blueprints.
America was fine since it was off being neutral and was developing submarine carriers; plus Hawaii became a state. The 1952 coup in Iran never happens as Great Britain couldn't use Communism as an excuse to get them to get the US to help them gain control of Iran's oil. Iran becomes an ally of Germany.
The Sixties: Beginning of the Space Era
The sixties saw a few changes. Decolonization did not occur especially without the two world wars to convince Europe to do so. There was no Cuban Missile Crisis as there was no Communism. John F. Kennedy probably never gets assassinated since Lee Harvey Oswald was anti capitalist. The civil rights movement still occurs and was not a result of the anti-war movement (occurred before).The civil rights movement caused massive protests in Austro-Hungary similar to those in the 20s but it does escalate into an insurgency. The rebel groups used guerrilla warfare and many Germans died trying to preserve the integrity of the Balkan state. There was a big antiwar movement in Germany over the course of the war which lasted from 1965 to 1973. In 1972, Germany had to drop out because it was losing too many resources keeping the Austro-Hungarians in power. The antiwar protests were accompanied by calls for democratic reform and a stronger voice for the middle class. To avoid the same fate as their Austrian friend which broke apart, Germany made reforms to their government and eventually became a parliamentary democracy. Information on the voting age of Imperial Germany is limited but if it was 21, it's now down to 18.
In 1964, England launched its first satellite into orbit. Germany sends man to the moon around 1969 but Great Britain was catching up pretty quick.
In 1965, the major European powers recognized the threat of mutual assured destruction and signed the non proliferation treaty in Geneva Switzerland. Ironically around this time, the USA tests its first atomic bomb and does not sign the treaty. Europe didn't care that much since the US never interfered in their affairs.
The Warring Seventies
Germany fought in the Austro-Hungarian civil war and withdrew in 1972. The loss of Austro-Hungary and the resources used to fight the war dramatically hurt Germany and made it feel more vulnerable. Germany also became more democratic and tensions cooled down with Russia, Britain and France. In 1976, the UK launched its first space station followed by Germany's first space station in 1977. The British space station has about the same amount of usable space as a truck trailer whereas the German one was much bigger and looked like the American Skylab. Since Germany was leading the world in technology, they would also lead the world in the era of gaming. Iconic video game characters are rather different.
The Second Pacific War also began in 1971 and ended in 1978. Until 1975, the war took place primarily in Asia but in 1975, the battle ground shifted towards America and stayed there until 1977 when the Japanese were driven out. From that point until the end, the US was securing island chains to use the atomic bomb to prompt a surrender in 1978.
The 1979 Iranian revolution does not happen as there was no US led coup although the 1958 coup of Iraq still occurs. The Ba'athist government was supported by the Entente seeing Sadaam as a potential ally.
The invasion of Afghanistan thankfully does not happen which means no mujaheddin, no al Qaeda, no 9/11, and no ISIS (woo hoo). Instead, Afghanistan remains a monarchy. The Iran-Iraq War never happens as in OTL, both countries were looking to expand but in this timeline, neither country attacks the other. This also means no Gulf War. Since Ronald Reagan's presidency was the direct result of Jimmy Carter's failed policy in Iran, he never becomes president.
The Big NinetiesThe nineties were an interesting time to be alive but for different reason. Europe began the decolonization of Asia, Africa, and other parts of the world after another meeting called for the independence of colonies. Tensions between the central and entente powers have cooled down so much that they form the European Union initially starting with Germany, Russia, England, and France but grew over time. To mark this, Germany, England, France, and Russia begin work on a modular space station called the Friedan (German for peace). Later on, NASA jumped in. Together, they built a space station which looked something like the ISS (image below). Belgium says yes to independence in 1993
The Third Millennium
There is no 9/11 since there's no al Qaeda which automatically means no Iraq invasion. Since there is no 9/11, the trump international hotel and tower was made the tallest building in Chicago due to the lack of concern of a terrorist attack. The 2008 financial crisis still happens. The Arab Spring occurs much later than 2011 and the Middle East is much more stable in this timeline. African progress is set back 30 years and right now, most of the countries are regimes. South America remains mostly unaffected by this timeline. There is no Tibetan independence movement as Tibet is not mistreated by the Chinese as in OTL.
Europe is still the political and economic center of the world. The European Union includes much of Europe and crossing into another EU country is just as easy as crossing US states. Russia's population is not decreasing as that was the result of the soviet union collapse and is probably more populous than the US as there was no WW2 or bad Communist policies to drain it (though it is expected to reach its population plateau sometime in the 20s). Russia is also similar in government to Scandinavia Great Britain and France hold about the same amount of power as they do in our timeline. Germany is the economic center of Europe, even more so than in our timeline and is also more socialist (Germany feels the bern) as proven by its OTL history (Germany was a welfare state before WW1). Its military is the second best in Europe (after Russia) and has the largest submarine fleet in the world. All of the space agencies merged together to form the European space agency. The United States remains mostly isolated in the realm of politics but still produces many consumer products. The military isn't stretched across the world and has submersible ships which can house an invasion force. Barack Obama does not take nomination as that was the result of the Iraq War. Instead, Hillary Clinton takes the nomination, runs two terms (assuming she doesn't get involved in any scandals which cripple her) and now, it seems likely that Obama will take nomination for the Democratic primaries. Keynesian economics are not as negatively viewed in America as there is no Communism or Nazism to draw comparisons to but instead are seen as moving forward.
China is a rising power in Eastern Asia and is beginning to rival the US and Europe. Its GDP surpassed Germany's and is set to pass the US and become first some point in the near future.