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The Zimmerman Telegram was a telegram sent from the German Empire to Mexico promising military and financial aid in exchange for an attack on the United States. The war in Europe had reached a stalemate and in the hopes to starve Britain out of war the Germans planned to resume unrestricted naval warfare, an act which would surely make for the U.S.'s entrance into the war. The Mexican government accepted the offer on the premise that German troops be sent to Mexico within two months of the declaration of war.
Following Woodrow Wilson's declaration of war on Germany the Mexican Government quickly sent the United States two main demands. One, that the United States remain neutral and cease hostilities with the Central Powers and two, that all land ceded to the United States (including Texas) be immediately returned to Mexico. The demands were quickly rebuffed and war was shortly declared.On April 23, 1917 the Mexican First, Fourth, and Seventh armies quickly invaded Texas, California, and Arizona. Each army had been ordered to advance at least 15 miles from the Mexican-U.S. border and establish a defensive line so that most of the fighting would take place on U.S. soil. The United States, which had already begun sending troops to Europe, found itself caught with half its standing Army on a foreign continent. The national guard was sent to repulse the attack however the far better trained Mexican Regulars defeated the lightly armed defense force at the Battle of Houston and the Battle of San Diego. Woodrow Wilson began recalling men from Europe, stating "We cannot afford to fight at someone else's house when the enemy is at our doorstep." The Mexican Army quickly began urging the Latino populace of the states to join the Mexican cause, and many did while those who didn't were deemed "enemies of the motherland." Finally, General Pershing won a victory at the Battle of Phoenix, defeating Mexican General Manuel Gutierrez and capturing 3,000 prisoners. Several American counter attacks on Mexican trenches resulted in nothing but casualties. The lines stabilized shortly afterward, with the United States massing troops for a counter attack.
In Europe, with the loss of valuable American troops, the Entente found itself short-staffed and in need of manpower. The German Empire meanwhile realized that a single knock out blow now could end the war and soon they began the Spring Offensive. The French lines quickly collapsed without American support and the Germans quickly began closing in on Paris. The British Expeditionary Force managed to defeat the Germans at the Somme River however the Germans managed to surround and besiege Paris. The French, after thirty-three days of siege surrendered to the German Empire. Britain, now on its own, also signed a separate armistice and thus ended the war in Europe.
Japan, taking advantage England and France's dire situation, declared war on the Entente and quickly seized several Anglo, French, and American colonies such as Hong Kong, French Indchina, the Philippines, Hawaii, and New Zealand. Japanese troops were also preparing for a massed invasion of Australia when word of the surrender came. Japan reacted bitterly to the news, with Admiral Matsumoto exclaimed, "Why beg us to join, then when we are ready end the game?" However, Japan had significantly increased its territories and soon signed the German-Japanese Alliance to formalize good relations between the two.
With the collapse of the Entente in Europe Germany quickly made good on its promise and began sending thousands of men, new tank models, and millions of dollars in supplies. With German troops, weapons, and Generals aiding the Mexican Army for the first time many Mexican Generals truly believed that the war could be won (many had doubted the President and some had even planned a coup) The German-Mexican Armies pushed forward again and defeated the U.S. again at the Battle of Los Angeles however the U.S. Army won decisive victories at the Battle of Austin, Dallas, and Tucson, and Casa Grande. With these victories the U.S. launched an offensive into Mexico, something that the Mexican Government wanted to avoid. The offensive was only halted due to the massive amounts of German tanks given to the Reserve Army, which had been sent to stop the Americans.
The United States meanwhile landed 15,000 troops on the shores of Sonora and soon began marching towards Mexico City. The Reserve Army was called back once again however it was routed at the Battle of Hermosillo. Meanwhile a division of marines captured the Yucatan Peninsula from the Mexican Government. The Japanese meanwhile, in an effort to distract troops from the Mexican Front landed about 12,000 troops in Oregon and occupied the state and established the Mormon Republic of Deseret. The ploy worked and troops were called from the Mexican Front to combat the new Japanese-Deseret troops.
With thousands of troops leaving the front the Mexicans called back the seventh army to defeat the Americans sent to capture Mexico City but both realized that the Seventh Army would not make it in time to stop the capture of Mexico City. However, at the famous Battle of Nogales Lt. Rodriguez managed to stall the Americans long enough for the Seventh Army to arrive, beginning his famous war cry, "Hold for Nogales! Hold for Mexico!" The Seventh Army managed to defeat the weary American troops, taking 7,000 prisoners. The Yucatan Peninsula was retaken by a Japanese-Mexican landing force and soon the United States was forced to sue for peace.
Treaty of Chihuahua
The Treaty of Chihuahua was the treaty signed between the Central Powers (Japan and Mexico included) and the United States. The terms of the treaty moved up the boundaries of Mexico from Los Angeles to New Orleans and also extracted punitive damages were extracted from the United States to Mexico. It also ceded Hawaii, Philippines, Midway, and the Wake Islands to the Empire of Japan. The Treaty of Chihuahua was a main factor in the U.S. participation in the Second Great War. It also forced the U.S. to recognize the Mormon Republic of Deseret (MRD)
The war had ravaged the Entente Powers and had clearly redefined the balance of power in all theaters of the war. In the Pacific, Japan had more than doubled its territory and had clearly become the superpower of the Pacific. In Europe, Germany had expanded its own Empire and had clearly established a hegemony over all of Europe. In America the U.S. had lost its own hegemony and Mexico emerged into the 20th century as a world superpower.