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The Dark Continent
In this alternate history universe, African nations become world powers through a series of events starting from the defeat of Rome by the Carthaginians in the Second Punic War. Other world-changing events occur such as the defeat of the Seleucids by the Ptolemaic Egyptians and the conquest of all of western Arabia by the Abyssinian Empire.
218 BC - Hannibal pushes his Carthaginian forces all the way to the Pyrenees, attacking Rome's Pyrenean allies with minimal losses. His brother, Hasdrabul is left as commander of Spain as his brother pursues his campaign of defeating Rome once and for all. As Hannibal crosses the Rhone River, he faces little resistance from Gallic tribes.
Hannibal makes alliances with friendly Gallic leaders who give him assistance in the form of knowledge on how to cross the Alps. The Carthaginians cross the Durance River, approaching the Alps and storming the main town of the hostile Taurini tribe.
The Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio and his army reach Massila to cut off Hannibal. He learns that the Carthaginians have already crossed the river however stalls on taking his men back to Italia to await him and doesn't take his soldiers back for a few days, not leaving any of his men to fight the Carthaginians in Iberia.
A second army of Romans under Tiberius Sempromius Longus assembles in Sicily with the hopes of marching on North Africa.
Scipio rushes to the Po River to protect the Roman colonies of Placentia and Cremona. Hannibal meets the Romans near the Ticino River and there the two forces engage in the Battle of Ticino where Hannibal's superior cavalry and military genius prevails. Scipio is killed in the battle and the remaining Roman forces retreat to Placentia.
Longus is forced by the Senate to leave from Sicily to Placentia to engage Hannibal again. The Romans and Carthaginians fight on the banks of the Trebia River where the Romans are defeated in the Battle of Trebia. This recent victory wins over both the Gauls and the Ligurians for Carthage which bolsters the military strength of Hannibal.
Negotiations between the Ptolemaic Egyptians and the Seleucids end. Antochius III, the Seleucid King, renews his advance in the Levant. However, the Ptolemaics surprisingly fend off against the attacks and manage to still hold Lebanon, Palestine, Phoenicia and Judea.
217 BC - Gaius Flemonius Nepos is re-elected consul. He raises new armies and prepares to march north to meet Hannibal. Hannibal advances to the Arno River and outmaneuvers Nepos at Arretium, making it all the way to Faesulae and Perugia.
On the shore of Lake Trasimene, Hannibal annihilates Nepos' army at the Battle of Trasimene, slaughtering thousands and drowning many other. Hannibal intercepts Roman re-inforcements coming from Ariminium and destroys them, too. The Carthaginians go on to advance onto Rome.
The Senate flies into a panic, fearing that Hannibal would besiege the city of Rome. The confusion actually causes a brawl to erupt on the senate floor where Fabius Maximus, a rising politician is killed.
Hannibal ravages Apulia and Campania, skirmishing the last few legions Rome has. The Romans hope to buy some time to delay the Carthaginians. However, defeat for their cause looks inevitable.
Egyptian native Hoplites under Ptolemy IV crush the Seleucids in the Battle of Rhapia. The realization of their military importance leads to native Egyptians to demand for more rights. Fearing a civil war, the Greek Ptolemys grant native Egyptians greater liberties and privileges.
Antiochus III decides that a lengthy war with the Egyptians would be too costly and reasons to negotiate peace. The Seleucid army retreat from Syria and Antiochus III gives up all of his conquests.
The Illyrians, learning of Hannibal's recent victories over Rome, decide to revolt. Their king, Demetrius of Pharos advises the Macedonian king Philip V to end his war with the Aetolians and turn his attention toward Illyria and Italia. Philip takes Demetrius' advice and makes peace with Aetolia.
Hasdrubal strengthens his hold over the Ebro River region.
216 BC - Hannibal moves his army southward through Italy and engages in a pivotal battle at Cannae. Hannibal's army decisively defeats a larger Roman force. This is seen as the worst defeat for Rome in history and cripples Rome both militarily and psychologically. Rome is beaten so soundly that it no longer has the ability to field soldiers for war.
There is talk of Rome becoming a Carthaginian client kingdom, however, seeing what Rome is capable of, Hannibal decided to raze the city to the ground, slaughter its population and loot it of all of its wealth. All of Rome's holdings in Italia and Sicilia come to Carthage as well as Sardinia and Corsica. Hannibal returns to home as a hero. Illyria regains full independence from Rome and manages to expand its territory northward.
A revolt by native Egyptian peasants arises. Native Egyptian Hoplites join the revolt seeing it as a chance to restore native rule to Egypt. The Seleucids scheme to help the native Egyptians in order to overthrow the Ptolemies, their greatest rival.
Now that Illyria is free of Rome, Philip V decides to resume his war with Aetolia. He adds the manpower of Illyria to his army and attacks Aetolia and Sparta.
215 BC - Antiochus III attacks the Ptolemies from the west while the revolt spreads throughout Egypt proper. By now it is too late to stop the native Egyptians without foreign assistance. The Libyans, learning of the unrest in Egypt, see a chance to break off of the Ptolemies and regain their independence. Menen I styles himself King of the Libyans and manages to unite many Libyan tribes in their shared hatred for the Greeks.
Menen attacks Greek cities in Libya, driving out the population. As he wins more and more skirmishes with the Ptolemies, more Libyans join his army. His tactical genius and Libyan manpower show in his siege of the Greek city Cyrene. Menen manages to take the city by storm and slaughter its civilians, he is known as "Mad" Menen by the Greeks and tales of his greatness and cruelty will be told for centuries to come.
Philip V and Hannibal pledge and alliance in which they will aid each other in times of warfare and woe. The Hellenic League decides not to get involved in the Egyptian crisis. However, Philip V does agree to take in any Greek fleeing the wrath of Mad Menen or the native Egyptians.
Antiochus III gains ground through the Levant, retaking Syria and Palestine from the Egyptians. Ptolemy IV has gone into hiding.
The native Egyptians manage to capture the city of Thebes (now renamed Waset - its original Egyptian name).
A rebel general of Antiochus III, Achaeus, proclaims himself king of Anatolia. In one swift movement, Antiochus crosses the Taurus and deprives Achaeus of his holdings.
214 BC - Mad Menen meets up with the leader of the native Egyptians, Dhemut, in Waset. They learn of Ptolemy's plans to recapture the city with thousands of Libyans who rejected Menen's rule from a Greek dissenter. Mad Menen and Dhemut station huge defences and blockades all around the city, surrounding its walls with bowmen and Hoplites.
Ptolemy IV's troops meets Mad Menen and Dhemut and the two sides engage in the short but bloody Second Battle of Waset. This ends in a complete victory for Menen and Dhemut. Ptolemy IV is still in hiding and Mad Menen promises to find him and slaughter him before the entire of Egypt. The Greek dissenter, known as Theodoros the Turncoat to the Greeks, informs Menen and Dhemut that Ptolemy has most likely left Egypt.
Upon hearing this, the Egyptians believe that Ptolemy has fled to Greece, and Mad Menen raises a fleet to attack the Hellenic League, however, Dhemut warns him that such an action would mean war with Carthage, a war which the rebels could not hope to win. Mad Menen relents and instead decides to sack the Ptolemies' capital; Alexandria.
The Seleucids meanwhile continue to ravish Egypt's holds in the Levant. They come under very little opposition as most of the pharaoh's forces are staged in Egypt proper. Antiochus III intends to march right through the Levant and all the way to Alexandria in order to join his forces with Mad Menen and Dhemut.
Philip V begins his invasion of Illyria by sea. He captures Oricum, sails up Aous and besieges Apollonia.
In China, Emperor Qin Shi Huang orders his generals southward to bring territory into his empire. The Qin armies are ravaged in northern China by Xiongnu cavalrymen.
213 BC - Theodoros the Turncoat brings news to the rebels of Ptolemy IV still being in Egypt. Mad Menen's forces are already marching their way to Alexandria but Dhemut orders his troops to search every square inch of Egyptian land in the hopes of finding the pharaoh and his family. Before they set off however, Dhemut is crowned Pharaoh of Egypt at Memphis, the ancient capital of Lower Egypt, although the city had been in decline for a century.
The Seleucids make their way to the Sinai Peninsula which is only sparsely defended. The Battle of Sinai ends in victory for Antiochus who moves his forces straight into Egypt. The war is all but won for the rebels but Mad Menen decrees that he will not stop rampaging across Egypt until he gets his hands on Ptolemy IV and "crowns the false pharaoh in molten gold".
Dhemut is told that members of Ptolemy's family have been found in Athribis. The two members of Ptolemy's household are brought before Dhemut who takes them captive, hoping to use them as hostages in order to lure out Ptolemy.
Mad Menen meets strong resistance from the Greeks as he fights his way to Alexandria, hellbent on sacking the city and slaughtering all Greeks who resided there. During the Battle of Naukratis, many Libyans reject Mad Menen as their king ad switch sides, this invokes the mad wrath of Menen who orders his troops to "cut every manhood off with the traitor's own sword and feed it to him raw." Such brutality and barbarism on Menen's part ensures that there would be no more deserters among the Libyans.
An alliance between Attalus I of Pergamon and Antiochus III captures Achaeus in his capital of Sardis. Antiochus has him executed.
A member of court, disgruntled by Qin Shi Huang, assassinates him via poison. Qin Shi Huang's son, Qin Er Shi rises to emperor after his father's death.
In China, Confucian writings and practices are banned by the emperor. Books are burned and people are slaughtered.
212 BC - Ptolemy's wife, Arsinoe III is captured in Busiris. Dhemut sees fit to march her through the streets and execute her in front of the entire city. Mad Menen finally arrives in Alexandria. The city is well defended by Ptolemy's army but Mad Menen resolves to destroy all who is in his path. The battle rages and both sides lose a lot of men. After days of the city not falling and his men growing disloyal and unruly, Mad Menen decides to withdraw for the time-being and come back to the city once he has regained his numbers. This bolsters the morale of the Ptolemaic supporters.
Antiochus III marches his men to Tanis in order to capture it. The Ptolemeic cause is stronger here and Antiochus has a hard battle ahead of him. The Ptolemys repel the Seleucids every wave they attack. The Ptolemaic general Polycrates of Argos finally snatches victory from the Seleucids, fighting his way back to the Sinai.
Philip V takes many towns both inland and coastal in Illyria. The Illyrians fear that they will be unable to stop the Greeks from taking their kingdom.
Antiochus III decides against launching a campaign into India and instead focuses himself on controlling the entire region from the Sinai to Persia's eastern border. He marries off his sister, Antiochia to the king of Armenia; Xerxes, who recognizes Antiochus' suzerainty of his state.
211 BC - Intense fighting continues in the Sinai between the Ptolemeis and the Seleucids. Dhemut hopes that, while the Ptolemies are distracted by Antiochus' forces, he can capture towns and cities much more easily. Dhemut orders full-scale attacks on many important Ptolemy-held cities and still keeps a watch out for Ptolemy IV.
Mad Menen returns to Libya in order to raise the number of troops he commands. When negotiating with chiefs does not work, Mad Menen seeks to unify the Libyans properly. He manages to do this rather successfully, bringing many more Libya tribes under his control, with the help of Egyptian volunteers.
Hannibal worries that the war encompassing Egypt, Libya and Persia will soon spread into Carthage. He does his best to keep the war from far from home however he is told that sooner or later he will need to get involved.
Arcasis I of Parthia dies, leaving his son, Arcasis II has ruler of the Parthian Empire.
210 BC - Ptolemy IV is found in Hierakonpolis by Dhemut's forces. He is taken prisoner and led all throughout Egypt in chains, enduring pain and humiliation by thousands of Egyptians and Libyans. Dhemut declares the war is won when he executes Ptolemy before the Serapeum of Memphis. He kills the former pharaoh by melting gold and "crowning" him in it, an incredibly agonizing death.
However, the Greeks in Egypt welcome a new pharaoh - Agathocles of Egypt styled Agathocles I, a priest and advisor to the late Ptolemy IV. He is to be the head of a new Greek dynasty of Egypt yet Dhemut swears not to allow this to happen.
The first political reforms of Egypt start with Dhemut's council making new laws. Many of these are harsh for Greeks living in Egypt. Many Egyptians feel that the Greek language and culture should be banned from Egypt but Dhemut's council insists that it has already left a sizable mark on Egyptian daily life and that banning it would send the country backward.
209 BC - Menen succeeds in uniting all Libyans under his control. His territory is vast and his people are strong. Menen still harbors resentment for the Greeks and begins his second siege of Alexandria. The fighting this time around is even harder with the Greeks, desperate for victory, throwing all of their manpower behind this one battle. By now it is known that the supporters of Ptolemy and Agathocles could not win this war, Antiochus was biding his time in Sinai, playing with them and even if Alexandria did repel Mad Menen, he would return with an even stronger force and take it. Still, the Alexandrians fight on, slaying many Libyans and managing to flee the city into Greece. At last, Alexandria falls and Menen storms the city, massacring thousands. He will forever be remembered by the Greeks as a monster and by the Libyans and Egyptians as a hero.
The war is won for Dhemut and Menen. Dhemut decides to make Memphis the capital of Egypt once again, Alexandria is left to decline. In thanks for their help, Dhemut awards Menen independence from Egypt and all traditional Libyan land is returned to him so that his sons may rule an undivided, and Antiochus manages to persuade the new pharaoh to keep the Levant which he had conquered from the Ptolemies. Hesitantly, Dhemut accepts, knowing that Antiochus would just take it by force if he'd have to. Antiochus also gains the Ptolemy's former possessions in Anatolia and the Aegean.
Hannibal breathes a sigh of relief that he had not had to get involved with the war. The high priests of Egypt promise a prosperous land that will last until the end of time.
Dhemut marries the daughter of King Arqamani of Nubia, Arqama. The future heir will rule the lands of both Egypt and Nubia, forging a mighty empire from the sands.
The Xiongnu Empire is founded by Modun Chanyu after inheriting and unifying the different confederations that made up the Xiongnu.
208 BC - Antiochus III begins his campaign into Central Asia, hoping to regain all lands that Alexander the Great had won. He advances into Bactrian which is then ruled by the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus I. After Euthydemus resists Antiochus' siege of his capital city, Bactra, Antiochus promises him the hand of one of his daughters and the right to rule as king of Bactria under the Seleucids.
Arqama gives birth to a son, heir to Egypt and Nubia, Hakheb. The boy is weak and sickly but the high priest declares that he will grow stronger with age.
Mad Menen, now having secure independence of Libya, has proven to be not as apt as ruling his new kingdom as he is on the battlefield. He is such an incompetent ruler that his council plots to assassinate him and places his young son, Futha, on the throne. The plan is carried out and the death of Mad Menen is reported far and wide. Futha, being only ten years old, is essentially a puppet king of Menen's councils who each seek power.
207 BC - Qin Er Shi is assassinated by his head eunuch, Zhao Gao. He is replaced by his nephew, Ziying. The number of raids by the Xiongnu against the Chinese increases and Ziying orders a military campaign against the steppe raiders.
Futha discovers how his father died and orders the death of every single one of his councillors. The councellors are made to endure torture and torment, eventually succumbing to death. Futha lets it be known that no man will control him.
The Bactrians under Euthydemus expand their territory, gaining land from the Parthians. The Bactrians are supported by the Seleucids, their allies.
206 BC - Antiochus marches across the Hindu Kush into the Kabul valley and renews his friendship with Sophagasenus, a king in the valley.
The Illyrians finally sue for peace against Philip V. He allows them to keep nominal independence under him so long as they swear their fealty.
Syphax, a king in western Numidia, allies himself with Hannibal. He plans to unite both the eastern and western Numidian tribes. He meets fierce resistance from another Numidian ruler; Masinissa. Masinissa is supported by the Libyans while Syphax finds help with the Carthaginians.
Ziying, ruler of the Qin Dynasty surrenders to Liu Bang who leads a popular revolt. This marks the end of the Qin Dynasty and Liu Bang becomes emperor. Yet the new emperor's position is not yet secure, he becomes entangles with the warlord Xiang Yu.
205 BC - Antiochus returns to Persia having pacified the Parthians and subjugating the Bactrians. Because of his great victories he is now known as Antiochus the Great and is compared to the likes of Alexander.
With Illyria now under his control, Philip V seeks to build up his naval forces to defend his Hellenic kingdom from Spartan pirates who are raiding his coasts. Before he attacks the pirate strongholds however, Philip decides to attack Thrace which has found a friend in the pirates.
The war between Syphax and Masinissa rages on. Dhemut, itching to help the Libyans in repayment for Menen securing his independence decides to attack Syphax and the Carthaginians despite his advisors warning him not to.
204 BC - Hasdrubal Gisco, Syphax' greatest Carthaginian ally in his war against Masinissa and veteran of the war that saw the fall of Rome, marries his daughter Sophonisba to the Numidian king.
Arqamani, king of Nubia, dies and his grandson, Hakheb becomes king. Being too young to rule, the young king's father, Dhemut I, pharaoh of Egypt, becomes regent. Controlling both Nubia and Egypt, Dhemut is now able to send more help to Masinissa and the Libyans in Numidia.
Syphax and the Carthaginians continue to fight Masinissa, the Libyans, the Egyptians and the Nubians despite the odds being against them.
203 BC - Carthage, believing the cause is lost, withdraw from Numidia. Syphax makes one last stand in Cirta but it proves to be in vain when Masinissa storms the city and becomes king of a united Numidia.
Dhemut's second son, Djeret, is born. Djeret is betrothed to the sister of Futha, Menen's eldest daughter, Kahina who is ten years older than the boy. Kahina is known far and wide as a great beauty and warrior princess who led many of Masinissa's Numidian forces against Syphax and the marriage is met with great enthusiasm.
202 BC - Djeret is sent off to the court in Libya where he will live for quite a few years.
Troubles brew in Greece, Philip's unstable union of the Greek states begins to fall apart after the Spartans, Rhodians and Epirotes rebel. Soon enough, other Greeks begin to establish their own states. Philip strikes into Greece, warring with any rebel he can.
Southern Gauls penetrate into Italia, raiding and ravaging Italic towns. Tarquin, new king of Etruria after the Romans fell, pushes the Gauls back and in turn begins attacking Gallic towns. This leads to a war between the Gauls of southern Gallia and the Etruscans.
Dhemut dies, leaving his son Hakheb as both pharaoh of Egypt and the king of Nubia. His mother, Arqama, agrees to be his regent until her son comes of age but his uncle, Dhemut's brother Garek, plots to murder Arqama in order to become Hakheb's regent and then kill the boy king as well.
Liu Bang defeats Xiang Yu in western China and becomes Emperor over the Chinese. He begins the Han Dynasty.
201 BC - Philip V is defeated by Rhodes, Cyzicus and Byzantium in the Battle of Chios. This is only a minor setback to the king of Macedon, however. Nabis, king of Sparta, seeks to expand his rule and makes his position clear by attacking Messene.
Garek sees his plans carried out and Queen Arqama is killed. Garek becomes Hakheb's regent, biding his time and waiting until it suits him to murder the boy and become ruler of Egypt and Nubia. There is a slight problem however in the form of Hakheb's brother Djeret. Garek concludes that he must kill the boy as well.
The Gauls win a victory against Etruria outside the Gallic village of Brixer. The Etruscans retreat back into Italia.
200 BC - Demetrius I takes the throne of Bactria after his father, Euthydemus dies.
The Xiongnu continue to war in China, defeating the Emperor at the Battle of Baideng. The Great Wall of China is completed.
Messene, recently conquered by Nabis of Sparta, comes under attack again - this time against Philip V. He pushes the Spartans out of Messene, gaining a foothold in southern Greece.
199 BC - The Etruscans attack the southern Gauls again. The Etruscans manage to take control of Insubria but subsequent battles end in stalemate.
Relationships between Numidia and Carthage continue to be rocky after Masinissa rejects envoys sent by Hannibal.
As Hakheb approaches age, Garek realizes he must act soon. Hiring a Nubian sellsword he has Hakheb assassinated while in bed and proclaims himself pharaoh of Egypt and king of Nubia while Djeret is away in Libya. Although the connection between Garek and Hakheb's death is never made, it still outrages the Libyans. Futha promises war on Garek if he does not step down and put Djeret on the throne but Garek, estimating that the Libyans do not have the strength to take on both Egypt and Nubia, ignores him. The people of Egypt and Nubia accept Garek as their king as they know him for a charismatic and just ruler, ignorant of the murders of Arqama and Hakheb. To strengthen his ties to Nubian throne, Garek marries the sister of Arqama - Kandake.
198 BC - Garek becomes close friends with the Seleucids. Antiochus gives Garek his daughter, Cleopatra's, hand in marriage to Garek despite him being old enough to be her father.
The Han pay the Xiongnu for peace with Emperor Liu Bang offering up gold, rice and silks to Modo Chanyu and the recognition of the Xiongnu Empire, setting the Great Wall as a border between the two states.
Antiochus occupies a number of Greek cities in Anatolia. He besieges Pergamon and eventually manages to starve the city out.
Bomilcar, a Carthaginian admiral who served under Hannibal, plans to sail eastward past Carthage and then southward, looking to circumnavigate the southern hemisphere and end in up in Egypt or Arabia. The Carthaginian governorate are none to keen on this plan, but Bomilcar promises to fund this expedition himself. Reluctantly, they agree, and ten ships set out.
197 BC - Nabis attacks the city of Argos. The Spartans are repelled by the Macedonians who hold the city.
The Insubres and the Etruscans call a peace treaty after several years of war and raids. This allows Tarquin to focus on his plan of conquering Italia. He realizes that, with Carthaginian backing, he will be able to control the entire peninsula save for Rome and a few other Carthaginian holdings.
Attalus I of Pergamon dies and is succeeded by his son Eumenes II.
196 BC - Antiochus' army crosses into Thrace where Antiochus proclaims his right to rule the area. Philip V sends embassies and diplomats to Antiochus, demanding he give up all territory in Greece and Anatolia as that is Philip's territory but Antiochus refuses Philip's demands.
Garek is accused of tyranny by Futha who urges the Egyptians and Nubians to rebel. Garek laughs at these claims and tells his subjects to ignore the Libyan king.
The Etruscans move their forces into Sabina. Titas, king of the Sabines, marches his army to meet them. The Etruscans and the Sabines do battle near the banks of the Anio. The Battle of Anio ends in an Etruscan victory but the conquest of all of Italia is far from fruition. Tarquin has lost a great many soldiers in this battle.
195 BC - Hannibal becomes unpopular with an important faction of the Carthaginian nobility due to his administrative and constitutional reforms. The matter is not dealt with and civil war looks imminent.
Garek looks to the former possessions of the Ptolemys in Asia. He is tempted to go to war to win back Syria and other territories but his advisors tell him that this is folly.
Philip V fights the Battle of Gythium with the Spartans. As Gythium is an important port ally to the Spartans, Philip decides to capture it before marching inland into Sparta. The Spartans hold out for days but eventually the port falls to Philip.
Emperor Gaozu, also known as Liu Bang, dies and is succeeded by his son, Emperor Hui.
194 BC - The Carthaginians are reminded of their pact with the Macedonians and attack Sparta. Although weakened, Sparta continues to hold out against the Carthaginians and the Macedonians.
Antiochus decides to invade Pergamon. His forces storm the city and add it to his empire. Antiochus threatens to conquer all of Greece. Philip V briefly turns his attention away from Sparta to stand his ground against the Seleucids.
A group of one hundred and thirty-three Egyptian and Nubian conspirators plan to overthrow Garek in order to welcome Djeret to the throne. This ploy is soon sniffed out by the pharaoh who orders the men executed in the most gruesome way possible.
193 BC - Antiochus and Philip fight a battle in Thrace outside the town of Artanes. The battle is a victory for Seleucid forces who are now poised to attack Macedonia. Hannibal and the Carthaginians are assigned the task of finishing off Sparta while Philip can give his full attention to Antiochus.
Nabis moves to reclaim Gythium after being expelled by Philip. His army is met and squahed by Hannibal but are not completely destroyed.
192 BC - The Achean navy and army under Philopoemen head toward Gythium to knock Nabis out of the game altogether. The Achean fleet destroys the Spartans while the Achean land forces are unable to defeat the Spartans outside Gythium. Philopoemen retreats to Tegea.
When Philopoemen reenters Laconia, he is ambushed by the tyrant Nabis. Philopoemen, nevertheless, manages to gain victory over the Spartans.
Nabis is assassinated and Sparta falls to the Acheans. With the Spartans off his back - Hannibal decides to help Philip against Antiochus.
Philip defeats Antiochus at the Battle of Seuthopolis. This boosts the morale of Philip's forces but their celebrations are short-lived. They soon learn that Antiochus is sending for reinforcements to sweep the Greeks.
Tarquin defeats the Sabines outside on the left bank of the Tiber river. Tarquin is now in the position to march onto Reate, the Sabine capital.
191 BC - Arsaces II of Parthia dies, some suspect he has been murdered under the orders of Antiochus III. He is succeeded by his cousin Phriapatius.
The new emperor of Han, Emperor Hui, lifts the ban of Confucian writings.
Garek grows paranoid, believing that everyone is plotting against him. Every minor act of defiance is seen as evidence of a conspiracy against him. He routinely has his most trusted advisors and generals murdered so they won't gain power. He becomes increasingly jealous, cruel and sadistic, subject to fits of violent outburts.
190 BC - The Seleucid fleets surround Rhodes, ordering the Rhodians to surrender. When the Rhodians refuse, they are bombarded by Antiochus' ships. Eventually the Rhodians relent and fall to the Seleucids. This worries Philip greatly.
After numerous miscarriages, Garek's wife Kandake bears his son and heir. The boy is named Shutub and will rule the thrones of Egypt and Nubia.
The Battle of Eurymedon is fought between Carthaginian and Macedonian ships under Hanibal and Philip versing the Seleucid fleet of Antiochus. The Carthaginian and Macedonian ships are successful and force the Seleucids to flee.
The naval Battle of of Myonessus is also fought between the Seleucids and the Carthaginians, ending a victory for Hannibal and Philip. Meeting no further resistance, the Carthaginians cross the Hellesport into Anatolia and order the Seleucids to surrender the region west of the Taurus Mountains. Antiochus refuses and the Battle of Magnesia is fought on the plains of Lydia between the Carthaginians and the Seleucids. Once again, the Carthaginians are successful.
Due to the recent defeat of the Seleucids by Philip and Hanniba, Armenia declares itself independent of the Seleucid Empire. With Greek and Carthaginian consent, Artaxius becomes king of Armenia, buildng his capital at Artaxata.
189 BC - The Aetolian League, robbed of its only foreign ally, is forced to sign a peace treaty with Philip, becoming an ally. Their power is now broken even if they still exist in name.
The Carthaginian civil war breaks out between Hannibal the Carthaginian nobility. Within a few months, Hannibal manages to defeat the nobility and declares himself king of Carthage.
Tarquin attacks the Sabine capital of Reate. The Sabines hold out against the Etruscans invaders and repel Tarquin and the Etruscans. Adding to Tarquin's woes, the Insubrians attacking from the north while his army is in Sabina. He hurriedly marches his army back to Etruria.
188 BC - Philip receives Antiochus' holdings in Anatolia east of the Taurus Mountains. Eumenes II of Pergamon demands his kingdom back but he is denies by Philip. Philip also manages to take Thrace however the Thracians prove difficult and Philip's rule there is very unstable.
Tarquin is defeated by the Insubrians near the city of Aritim. The Etruscans lose a lot of land to the Insubrians and fears he can not hope to conquer all of Italia.
Garek, with Djeret coming of age and war with Libya, makes a military alliance with the Seleucids. Antiochus promises Garek that he will aid him in the event of an attack by Djeret. By now word has gotten out that Garek killed Arqamana and Hakheb.
187 BC - The outlying province of the Seleucid Empire, Elymais, asserts its independence due to the blow of Seleucid power. Antiochus rides out to Elymais and plunders a temple of Bel. He is killed while pillaging and is succeeded by his son Seleucis III.
Djeret, now sixteen years of age, decides to reclaim the thrones of Egypt and Nubia from his uncle. He is positive that once his army invades, the Egyptian and Nubian people will rally to his cause. He invades Egypt with an army of Libyans. His uncle meets him and the Battle of the Sedusum Plains are fought. The battle is a decisive victory for Djeret who, despite being so young, is an effective commander. He sends Garek running and decides to give chase.
Djeret's wife, Kahina, decides to lead an attack of her own, striking more south than her husband. Garek dispatches an incompetent general, believing that even the lowliest of his male generals could defeat a woman in battle. His ill-judgment his confirmed when it is revealed that Kahina has smashed Garek's army at Luxor.
Garek reminds the Seleucids of their alliance and, reluctantly, Seleucus sends a small number of forces to Garek's aid.
186 BC - Djeret wins over many Egyptians to his cause as he is trekking through the nile valley. His forces only engage in small-scale skirmishes with Garek's troops seeing as most of them are defensively placed around cities but Djeret wins every battle just the same, gaining more men and provisions along the way. Many Egyptians are calling him Alexander the Great reborn.
Kahina routes and destroys a force loyal to Garek around Edfu. Garek demands for more help from the Seleucids who send an inconsistent trickle of old men, inexperienced boys, criminals and poor folks unable to pay off their debts.
Futha arranges an alliance with Masinissa and the Numidians for Djeret's cause.
185 BC - The Seleucids agree to take in Garek's wife and son. While in the Seleucid Empire, Shutub falls ill and dies. Many believe the boy was poisoned by a loyalist to Djeret.
Futha, who has now raised many Numidians for Djeret, sends his newly formed army to meet Garek at the Battle of the Khadian Plains. Garek's army of Seleucid "volunteers" breaks and runs and Garek runs back to his capital in Memphis, figuring that Nubia is lost.
Pusyamitra Sunga, a general of the Mauryan Empire, strangles the Emperor Brhadrata bringing an end to the Mauryan dynasty. In its place he founds the Sunga dynasty.
184 BC - Making good use of Garek's virtual surrender of Nubia, Kahina moves her forces in and captures the region's capital without any resistance.
Djeret joins his army up with Futha and his combined force takes the town of Lahun suffering minimal casualties. Garek, determined not to be taken alive by Djeret, orders the city of Memphis be raized to the ground after he commits suicide "so that my nephew will never taste the fresh fruits his father planted".
Before he can commit suicide, however, he is captured by a mob loyal to Djeret who tramples him to death. Memphis is not destroyed.
183 BC - Garek loyalists surrender to Djeret as he comes into Memphis. He is welcomed to the thrones of Egypt and Nubia. The Seleucids offer slaves and soldiers to Djeret for their part in helping his usurping uncle but Djeret is still angered. He draws up battle plans, thinking to attack the Seleucid Empire and absorb it into a new Egyptian Empire.
Hannibal dies of natural causes in Carthage and the nobility sigh a deep breath of relief. Most of Hannibal's reforms still remain intact as he has managed to win the support of many noble families.
King Bagas, an enemy to Masinissa and king of Mauretania, offers his daughter Aureba to Prince Ozyrmus of the Garamantes. Masinissa takes this as a slight as he believes Bagas initially planned to betrothe Aureba to Masinissa himself.
182 BC - Djeret attacks the weakened Seleucid Empire adding most of the Seleucids western territory to his empire. Djeret styles himself Emperor of Egypt and dreams of created an empire even larger than Alexander's.
The situation between Masinissa and Bagas is resolved with Bagas offering his second daughter, Oryna to Masinissa.
181 BC - Pharnaces I of Pontus decides to attack both Eumenes II of Pergamum and Ariarathes IV of Cappadocia and therefore invades Galatia with a large force. Eumenes leads an army to oppose him and the two clash. Pharnaces I is victorious and expands his territory.
180 BC - Demetrius I of Bactria invades north western India and appoints Apollodotus I as king of the Indo-Greek Kingdom.
In China the Lu Clan Disturbance occurs after the death of Grand Empress Dowager Lu. The state of Nanyue submits to Han dominance.
179 BC - Philip V dies and is succeeded by his younger son Demetrius. Once Demetrius ascends the throne he has his older brother Perseus put to death.
Djeret allies himself with Pharnaces I after the latter won a crushing victory over Eumenes II. With the power of Egypt, Pharnaces is able to conquer the entirety of Galatia and Paphlagonia whilst ceding some land to Garek.
Demtrius of Macedon begins building up the Macedonian army in hopes of attacking the Greek leagues. He allies himself with Djeret and Paphlagonia.
Tarquin finally drives off the Insubrians after many close battles. He is killed by his son, Lars, who becomes the king of Etruria.
178 BC - Djeret strikes into the heartland of the Seleucid Empire and takes Seleucus IV's daughter Laodice as his second wife. After deposing the Seleucid Empire and adding the Seleucid realms to his empire, Djeret ponders where to attack next.