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HISTORY OF THE CALIFORNIA REPUBLIC: 1800-2000, edition by Dr. Will Allen and Dr. John Bowerton


California Republic flag

The following is a thorough historical accounting of the California Republic's nearly 200-year existence.

Alta California

Alta California (location map scheme)

The area of Alta California between 1804 and 1846.

Alta California was once a province and territory in the viceroyalty of New Spain, it was created in 1804 and occupied an immense area of land. In 1835, the President of the Mexican Republic established the Las Siete Leyes (The Seven Laws) which split Baja and Alta California apart, revolutionizing the country.

Texas War of Independence

Tennessee congressman Davy Crockett convinces the U.S. government under Andrew Jackson to assist the Texas Military in defense of Texas land against President Santa Ana of Mexico.

In 1836, the Battle of the Alamo was turned in favor of the Texas Republic with the aid of the U.S. military. This leads to Texas remaining an independent nation for 9 years, until a referendum in 1845 where Texas overwhelming vote against annexation by the U.S.

Bear Flag Republic

In 1846, Commander William B. Ide leads a revolt with assistance of Alta California and the Texas Republic, beating back Mexican forces past Sonoma, toward the Colorado River. The Bear Flag Revolt was born, flying the eponymous bear flag high into the sky. Sonoma was held for three weeks until an American frontier regiment lead by Captain John C. Fremont helped push the Mexicans back.

This simple flag became the lightning rod for many Mexicans, indigenous peoples and American immigrants to assemble for their own nation to be formed in a similar fashion as Texas, 10 years prior.

Mexican-American War

Also in 1846 until 1848, the United States became mired in a full-on conflict with Mexico, with U.S. forces occupying New Mexico and California. President James K. Polk's agenda of manifest destiny was a hard sell for many, who had thought that the loss of Texas to independents as well as California to independents were slowly losing steam. Polk did succeed however, to add Oregon as a territory of the United States in 1848, it did little for Polk's popularity however.

California Gold Rush

Upon the discovery of gold in Sutter's Mill, the Bear Flag republic seized upon the opportunity to use it to their advantage, the U.S. backed off as the nation slowly began to formulate itself. This caused the city of San Francisco to boom overnight, eventually becoming the de facto capital, also the location of the signing of the nation's constitution in 1849.

California Republic

California became a country on September 9, 1850, as a free slave country, when the Great Compromise of 1850 was decided.

Texas-American War

In the Great Compromise of 1850, Texas was asked by the U.S. to relinquish control of New Mexico, and if it didn't that war would occur. The war was brief but Texas got to keep New Mexico and the Panhandle. U.S. Indian Territory was declared an independent entity by Texas Republic.

Nation of Deseret

U.S. had bequeathed land to Brigham Young's followers the Mormons where he founded Salt Lake City in 1851. Deseret was declared by President Pierce as a protectorate of the U.S.

The First American Civil War

In 1860, 16th President of the United States Abraham Lincoln presided over the opening volleys of a secessionist movement in the American South. The war lasted 4 years until 1865, Texas Republic siding and joining the Confederate States of America and the California Republic sided with the United States. Post-War, all former states in the Confederate States remained a separate entity. Texas and California retained their independence as sovereign nations, though the war soured relations between the two nations. Texas suffers for many years of debt and depression while California remains prosperous and gains power. In 1868, California establishes their University system.

War for Baja California

California offered its assistance to Mexico for Baja California in helping supply them with weapons to defeat the French occupation of their land. The war concluded with California's acquisition of the peninsula of Baja California in its entirety, circa 1867-1870.

California-Texas War

With California expanded, Texas suffers its economic downfall, but attempts to expand itself for material purposes, for Arizona. The War lasts two years (1871-1873), it causes Texas to petition the U.S. for admission into the Union in 1874, which is approved in 1875 and admitted in 1876. Mexican president Juarez dies of a heart attack and opponent Diaz ascends to the presidency in 1872.

California Indigenous Safe Zone/The Old Western Frontier

Throughout the mid-late 1870s and through the 1890s, it was decided that commerce and law be brought to outlying areas, millions flocked to the new country for better lives and the nation prospered for decades. While the U.S. fought its crusade that won it several territories, Hawaii was annexed by Californian Republic as a protectorate, helping preserve its monarchy against American interests in 1895.


In the 1900s, tech tyrant Thomas Edison in New Jersey attempted to maintain a stranglehold on the new artform, enterprising entrepreneurs decided to flee to the California Republic escaping American copyright laws.

The First Great War (1914-1918)

The U.S. entered the war when the U.S.S. Lusitania was sunk by a German sub, the California Republic decided to join Canada and its American allies in the war. The Confederate States lose the war and are forced to pay large sums in reparations along with Germany. U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt dies of a heart attack causing Vice President Champ Clark to become president and for two years the country is changed. The U.S. has stronger banking restrictions than California Republic.

Inter-War period (1918-1939)

The California Republic continued to prosper as a nation well into the 20th century, inspiring many progressive movements, like gay rights, woman's rights, etc.

Second Great War (1939-1947)/North American Tech Race era (1947-1990)

The Nazis invaded Poland starting the 2nd World War, the Nazis were aligned with the Japanese Empire. The Japanese attacked Hawaii causing the California Republic to join the war. The Confederate States ally themselves with Adolf Hitler and fight for the Axis. The California Republic joined the Allies to invade the Japanese mainland, millions are killed but Japan surrenders. The Germans are defeated as the Allies push their forces into Berlin. The Russians having been worn down endure a Civil War which causes Stalin to be overthrown by a leader who promises to rebuild Russia from its ashes, the position of Czar is restored.

The Confederate States are invaded by the Allies and the president is overthrown when an Atomic Bomb is detonated over Richmond, Virginia in 1947. The Confederate States are re-absorbed into the United States. World War II ends with the establishment of the Civilization Committee.

The U.S. and the California Republic come out as two of the world's superpowers. A sibling rivalry occurs between the two nations who compete for technological advancements. California advancing in tech, rocketry and science while the Americans improved in areas such as aviation and engineering. In the 1960s, the U.S. has an edge on California when it successfully launches a rocket into space, which causes the two nations to partner for a lunar mission in the late 1970s. With a space station constructed in the mid 1980s and a trip to Mars in the mid 1990s.

California Annexation (1990-1998)

Discussion of California Annexation by the United States began in the 1980s but political sentiment started back in the late 1940s. In 1990, President Cranston introduced legislation into the California Parliament which approved measures for annexation in 1992. President Feinstein was disappointed that the California Annexation Act of 1992 failed by such a close margin but planned to reintroduce it in the 1994 election. Feinstein was re-elected and the California Annexation Act of 1994 was passed, U.S. President Bill Clinton said that in the 1996 election there would be referendum to approve California's statehood. California was admitted into the United States in 1998, as the forty-eighth state.

In the year 2000, the state celebrated it's sequential anniversary of its founding.

Presidents of the California Republic

The California Republic decided to elect their presidents every four years much like the United States, however there was a referendum in the 20th century for the president to have a single 5 or 7-year term. The American Republican party equivalent is the Liberal Party and the American Democratic Party equivalent is the Anti-Liberal Party. 1.) John C. Fremont. (1849*/Jan. 1851-1859), 2 terms. B: 1813. D: 1890. LIB. From Georgia, US. 36/38-46.

2.) John B. Weller. (1859-1867), 2 terms. ALP. B: 1812. D: 1875. From Ohio, US. 47-55.

3.) Leland Stanford. (1867-1875), 2 terms. LIB. B: 1824. D: 1893. From New York, US. 43-51.

4.) Romualdo Pacheco (1875-1883), 2 terms. LIB. B: 1831. D: 1899. From Santa Barbara, CA. *1st Hispanic. 44-52.

5.) George Clement Perkins (1883-1891), 2 terms. LIB. B: 1839. D: 1923. From Maine, US. 44-52.

6.) Stephen M. White (1891-1899), 2 terms. ALP. B: 1853. D: 1901. From San Francisco, CA. 38-46.

7.) Jacob H. Neff (1899-1903), 1 term. LIB. B: 1830. D: 1909. From Pennsylvania, US. 69-73.

8.) George Cooper Pardee (1903-1907), 1 term. LIB. B: 1857. D: 1941. From San Francisco, CA. 46-50.

9.) Warren R. Porter (1907-1911), 1 term. LIB. B: 1861. D: 1927. From Santa Cruz, CA. 46-50.

10.) Hiram Johnson (1911-1919), 2 terms. PRO. B: 1866. D: 1945. From Sacramento, CA. 45-53.

11.) Thomas E. Campbell (1919-1927), 2 terms. LIB. B: 1878. D: 1944. From Prescott, AZ. 41-49.

12.) James D. Phelan (1927-Aug. 1930), 1 term. ALP. B: 1861. D: 1930. From San Francisco, CA. 66-69, died in office.

13.) Joseph R. Knowland (Aug. 1930-Jan. 1931), 5 month, fill-in. ALP. B: 1873. D: 1966. From: Alameda, CA. 57 years old.

14.) James Rolph (Jan. 1931- June 1934), 1 term. LIB. B: 1869. D: 1934. From San Francisco, CA. 62-65, died in office.

15.) Joseph R. Knowland (June 1934-Jan. 1935), 7 month, fill-in. ALP. - 2nd non-consecutive term. 61 years old.

16.) Raymond L. Haight (Jan. 1935-1943), 2 term. PRO. B: 1897. D: 1947. From: San Jose, CA. 38-46.

17.) Earl Warren (1943-1951), 2 terms. ALP. B: 1891. D: 1974. From: Los Angeles, CA. 52-60.

18.) William F. Knowland (1951-1959), 2 terms. ALP. B: 1908. D: 1974. From: Alameda, CA. 43-51.

19.) Pat Brown (1959-1967), 2 terms. LIB. B: 1905. D: 1996. From: San Francisco, CA. 54-62.

20.) Richard Nixon (1967-1975), 2 terms. ALP. B: 1913. D: 1994. From: Yorba Linda, CA. 54-62.

21.) Jerry Brown (1975-1983), 2 terms. LIB. B: 1938. ALIVE. From: San Francisco, CA. 37-45.

22.) Alan Cranston (1983-1991), 2 terms. LIB. B: 1914. D: 2000. From: Palo Alto, CA. 69-77.

23.) Dianne Feinstein (1991-1999), 2 terms, 1st female president. LIB. B: 1933. ALIVE. From: San Francisco, CA. 58-66.

27.) Maurice T. Corley (2015-present). LIB. B: 1961. ALIVE. From: Plumas County/Sacramento, CA. 54.

Presidents of the United States (Post-1850)

13.) Millard Fillmore (July 9, 1850-March 4, 1853) WHIG.

14.) Franklin Pierce (March 4, 1853-1857) DEM.

15.) James Buchanan (March 4, 1857-1861) DEM.

16.) Abraham Lincoln (March 4, 1861-April 15, 1865). REP.

17.) Andrew Johnson (April 15, 1865-1869) DEM.

18.) Ulysses S. Grant (March 4, 1869-1877) REP.

19.) Samuel J. Tilden (March 4, 1877-died 1884) DEM.

20.) Thomas A. Hendricks (1884-March 4, 1885) DEM.

21.) Grover Cleveland (March 4, 1885-1889) DEM.

22.) Benjamin Harrison (March 4, 1889-1893) REP.

23.) Grover Cleveland (March 4, 1893-1897) DEM.

24.) William McKinley (March 4, 1897-Sept. 1901) REP. Turns U.S. into a big business utopia.

25.) Theodore Roosevelt (Sept. 1901-March 4, 1909) REP.

26.) Howard Taft (March 4, 1909-1913) REP.

27.) Theodore Roosevelt (March 4, 1913-Jan 1919*) PRO.

28.) Champ Clark (Jan. 1919-March 2, 1921) DEM.

-) Frederick Gillett (March 2-4, 1921) REP.

29.) James M. Cox (March 4, 1921-before 1923). DEM

30.) Franklin D. Roosevelt (after 1923-until April 1945) DEM. 6-TERM PRESIDENT!

31.) Harry S. Truman (April 1945-January 20, 1949) DEM. Dewey does defeat Truman.

32.) Thomas E. Dewey (January 20, 1949-January 20, 1957) REP. 

33.) Dwight D. Eisenhower (January 20, 1957-1961) REP.

34.) John F. Kennedy (January 20, 1961-November 22, 1963)* DEM. birth of the Kennedy dynasty

35.) Lyndon B. Johnson (Nov. 22, 1963-January 20, 1969) DEM

36.) Robert F. Kennedy (January 20, 1969-January 20, 1977) DEM

37.) Ted Kennedy (January 20, 1977-March 1981) DEM

38.) Walter Mondale (March 1981-1985) DEM.

39.) John Glenn (January 20, 1985-January 20, 1993) DEM. Astronaut

40.) Bill Clinton (January 20, 1993-January 20, 2001) DEM.

41.) Albert Gore, Jr. (January 20, 2001-2002*) DEM.

42.) Joe Lieberman (2002-2005)* IND.

43.) John McCain (January 20, 2005-2013) REP. First rep in over 40 years.

44.) Mitt Romney (January 20, 2013-present) REP. Incumbent.

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