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Thailand, officially the Divine Thai Empire, but more commonly known as just the Thai Empire or Empire of Thailand, is the largest country by geographical area in Southeast Asia, comprising most of the mainland and many surrounding islands. Thailand is bordered to the north by Burma and China, bordered to the east by Vietnam and bordered to the west by the Bay of Bengal, Thailand also shares Island boundaries with Japan and the Pacific Federation. The country's culture, heavily influenced by neighbors, is based on Theravada Buddhism intertwined with local elements. Thailand's diverse population has played a major role in defining its politics, history and demographics in modern times, and the country continues to struggle to mend its ethnic tensions, though through years of promoting equality these ethnic disputes are more isolated.
Thailand is a kingdom, an absolute monarchy with King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the ninth king of the House of Chakri, who has reigned since 1946, making him the world's longest-serving current head of state and the longest-reigning monarch in Thai history. The king is officially titled Head of State, the Head of the Armed Forces, an Upholder of the Buddhist religion, and the Defender of all Faiths.
The largest city of Thailand is Jakarta, while the capital, Bangkok is the country's center of political, commercial, industrial and cultural activities.
Only about 35% of the population is of Thai origin, 60% of the population is of Indonesian origin, 3% is of Chinese origin, and 2% is ethnically Malay. Thailand has also attracted a number of expatriates from developed countries. The country's official languages are Thai and Indonesian. Its primary state religion is Buddhism, which is practiced by around 45% of all Thais, while Islam is the most widespread, being practiced by more than 50% of the populace, most of Indonesian descent.