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The Dark Period
The plagues brought by Phoenician traders on the Ivory Road reached the Andes in 376 BCE. Not understanding communicable disease wreaked havoc on Andean civilizations at the time. The Chavin Empire, at the time the principal state of the region, collapsed under the strain. Most if not all of the surrounding tribes in the region were severely depopulated, with as much as 90% of their population falling to the disease. The region would remain poltically stagnant with extremely small populations until 100 BCE as further epidemics sweep the region.
In 100 BCE however the population begins to recover. The weakened Chavin are swept away by Northern tribes, the most significant of which being the Moche, and the breakaway Nazca kingdom to the south. At the same time the Tiwanaku emerge as a power beyond the borders of the former empire. The states in the area formerly controlled by the Chavin will not become united again until the rise of the Wari in 400 CE.
This period notably sees the rise of interest in trade with peoples outside Tawantinsuyu. Gold and Cotton become primary exports of the region. In turn, Maize, Squash and Jade are imported to the region.
The Two-State Period.
In 400 CE, the city-state of Wari emerges as the principal power in the region. A series of strong kinds conquer the surrounding states by force. Following the collapse of the Nazca, the Wari are left as the successor to the Chavin lands. The Wari's success is credited to their adoption of Terrace Agriculture, which would as their legacy become widespread in the region. The Wari also construct a prodigal road network, revolutionalizing trade in the region.
To the south the state of Tiwanaku remained outside Wari control. Tiwanaku had by this point formed an empire in its own right. It is the Tiwanaku who are credited with the first use of the domesticated llama. These two states, remarkably, saw very little conflict.
During this period, the region sees a tremendous economic growth. It is also a period of great stability. However, in 700 CE the Wari begin to decline. The people of Wari largely abandon their city, seeking greater economic opportunity among other tribes and cities. By 1000 CE Wari is a shadow of it's former glory, a nearly-depopulated and politically divided wreck. Its various vassals break away. In 1000 CE a great drought breaks the imperial power of Tiwanaku as well. The city of Tiwanaku itself, one of the few major producers of food in the region due to its elevated terraces, is completely abandoned, and is not resettled until the time of the Inka take control of the region and the remnants of Tiwanakan culture.
The Chimor Interregnum
In 900 CE, the Chimor arose from the Moche city of Chan Chan. The Chimor are considered an heir to the imperial tradition ot Tawantinsuyu as the largest kingdom in the region, but their hold on the region is weak, and numerous independant kingdoms flourish in the region beyond Chimoran control. For this reason they are sometimes left out of the list of Tawantinsuyan Dynasties by native scholars.
Despite the decline in stability, the economy of the region continues to grow. At this time, crops, animals and technologies are being exchanged across the continent at a rapid pace, and the Andes were no exception.
Rise of the Inka
The Inka dynasty originates in the independant Kingdom of Cuzco, sometime around the year 1200. The Chimor Interregnum period draws to close in 1438, when Pachacuti Inka ascends to the throne of Cuzco. Through conquest, economic maneuvering and espionage the Inkan domain expands to cover the entire region. Chimor, the last resistance within Tawantinsuyu, is conquered under Tupac Inka in 1492 CE.
The Inka expand in all directions until 1530, when the empire is deemed to big to continually expand. Expansion to the south however had been halted in 1495 at the Battle of Maule, in which the Mapuche prevented expansion past the Maule river.
The Inka revolutionized the local economy by the creation of a vast road network and organized maritime trade. The Inkan kept the nobility of territories that submitted, creating a large upper class. The Inkan are also credited with the creation of the Tawantinsuyan identity; the idean that Tawantinsuyu was a nationality in its own right was very successful, and the area became very homogenized.
Towards the end of their reign, the Inka instituted various reforms in the attempt to bolster their regime, which was failing due a series of bad harvests and plagues, including the institution of a currency, the development of a market economy and abolishing the tradition of dead Upper Nobles not passing their lands and wealth to their heirs, instead keeping it in death under the effective control of their priestly interpreter. This however was not enough and the Maitan Dynasty overthrew the Inka in 1684 CE.
The Maitan Dynasty lasted until 1946, when the growing middle class seized control of the country and created the State of Tawantinsuyu. The Maitan Dynasty was characterized by the growing power of the peasantry and lower, who became enriched through the adoption of industrial practices and trade. The Maitans were itermittantly in conflict with most of their neighbours early into their reign, and their emphasis on war and attempts to restrain the growing market economy is what led to their downfall.