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The Republic of Tajikistan (Tajik: Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Cumhuriyi Tocikiston; Persian: جمهوری تاجیکستان, Jomhuri-ye Tajikestan; Russian: Республика Таджикистан, Respublika Tadzhikistan), commonly known as Tajikistan, is a republic of the Soviet Union. Tajikistan is a mountainous republic, bordered by Afghanistan to the south, China to the east, and the Soviet republics of Kyrgyzstan to the north, and Uzbekistan to the west. Tajikistan also lies adjacent to Pakistan but is separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor.
Tajikistan was originally established as an autonomous republic for the Tajik people. The ASSR was under the jurisdiction of Uzbekistan until it was upgraded to a republic in December 1929. During the Cold War, the republic experienced economic lows, having the lowest living standard in the USSR. Tajikistan was one of the nine republics to draft the New Union Treaty, and one of the first republics to ratify the creation of the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics. The republic continues to be one the poorer republics of the Soviet Union, but serious investments have been made by both the state and foreign inverters to bolster the standard of living.
The primary sources of income in Tajikistan are aluminum production, cotton growing and remittances from migrant workers. Aluminium industry is represented by the state-owned Talco (the biggest aluminum plant in Central Asia and one of the biggest in the world). Tajikistan has great hydropower potential, and the central government has focused on developing projects for internal use and electricity exports, decreasing or even eliminating its dependency on fossil fuels. Tajikistan is home to the Nurek Hydroelectric Station, which is the highest dam in the world. The latest development is the state owned RAO UES energy giant working on the Sangtuda 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant (670 MW capacity) commenced operations on 18 January 2008. Other projects at the development stage include Sangduta-2 by Iran, Zerafshan by Chinese SinoHydro and Rogun power plant with a projected dam height of 335 metres (1,099 ft) to be built by Russia's UES. Other energy resources include sizable coal deposits and smaller reserves of natural gas and petroleum.