The Republic of Tajikistan (Tajik: Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Cumhuriyi Tocikiston; Persian: جمهوری تاجیکستان, Jomhuri-ye Tajikestan; Russian: Республика Таджикистан, Respublika Tadzhikistan), commonly known as Tajikistan, is a republic of the Soviet Union. Tajikistan is a mountainous republic, bordered by Afghanistan to the south, and the Soviet republics of Kyrgyzstan to the north, Uyghurstan to the east, and Uzbekistan to the west. Tajikistan also lies adjacent to Pakistan but is separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor.
When the Soviet Union began to collapse, Turkmenistan and the rest of the Central Asian states heavily favored maintaining a reformed version of the state, mainly because they needed the economic power and common markets of the Soviet Union to prosper. It signed the "New Union Treaty", along with its fellow Central Asian SSR's and has continued to prosper in the joint market.
The primary sources of income in Tajikistan are aluminum production, cotton growing and remittances from migrant workers. Aluminium industry is represented by the state-owned Talco (the biggest aluminum plant in Central Asia and one of the biggest in the world). Tajikistan has great hydropower potential, and the central government has focused on developing projects for internal use and electricity exports, decreasing or even eliminating its dependency on fossil fuels. Tajikistan is home to the Nurek Hydroelectric Station, which is the highest dam in the world. The latest development is the state owned RAO UES energy giant working on the Sangtuda 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant (670 MW capacity) commenced operations on 18 January 2008. Other projects at the development stage include Sangduta-2 by Iran, Zerafshan by Chinese SinoHydro and Rogun power plant with a projected dam height of 335 metres (1,099 ft) to be built by Russia's UES. Other energy resources include sizable coal deposits and smaller reserves of natural gas and petroleum.