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The Swedish Civil War was the compilation of errors by the royalty of Sweden-Norway and unhappiness by the Norwegians. Lasting for a mere matter of months, the war resulted in a change of internal policy and further unification, with the name changing to the Scandinavian Union.
While there are many causes to the Swedish Civil War, several notable causes have come to light with the passing of time.
- From 1814 onward an Autonomy Movement grew in popularity in Sweden.
- Great Britain supported the Norwegian Autonomists both financially and internationally.
- Norway's economy was more dependent on foreign trade and therefore more sensitive to the protectionist measures the Swedes were adopting at the time.
- Norway was more affiliated to the United Kingdom, Sweden to Germany.
- Norway had greater interests outside of Europe than Sweden.
- Norwegian politics were becoming more and more liberal.
Beginning of the War
The Consul Affair served as the spark that set the tinder ablaze. With the Parliamentary vote in June of 1905, Norway voted its independence, which was not recognized by the Swedish government. Sweden turned to Kaiser Wilhelm II and bellicose Germany who exerted pressure on Great Britain and Denmark.
By August of 1905, concessions were won from Norway and in Karlstad negotiations were achieved with Norway, allowing for a more unified government, recinding of protectionists measures instigated by the Swedes and a broader membership in Europe.
While relations between Norway and Sweden were difficult for the first 30 years of the union, by the arrival of The World War, the Scandinavian Union was able to present a more unitary front.