In 1526, Sweden (including Finland) relinquished the Union of Kalmar, and adopted the reformed rite.
Soon Sweden entered in a dynastic union with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
During the 18th century and allied with Poland-Lithuania, the Ottomans, and the European khanates, in a series of events, Russia was partitioned between these powers. Sweden grabbed all the Baltic and outlets and most of northern Russia.
Sweden performed a series of ethnic cleansing in occupied Russia, in an attempt to integrate it to the Swedish realm. Sweden particularly targeted the Muscovian nobility, the Cossacks and the Tartars.
Corruption in the monarchy, and the raise of national identities in Finland and Novgorod, lead to a civil war in 1875. The royalists surrendered in 1877, but the war continued between independentists movements, and two main Swedish fractions proposing either a centralized union under a republican model or a loose federation. By 1881, the centralists had defeated the main separatist Novgorodian groups, but the federalists took effective control of Sweden proper. In August, the Copenhagen conference, lead to the foundation of the Swedish Commonwealth, and the creation of four sovereign republics: Sweden, Finland, Novgorod, and Estonia. The Commonwealth would include instance for arbitration, mutual defense, tariff union, and free movement of peoples. There were also clauses promoting neutrality to external conflicts.
The new Swedish Republic, begun concentrating in internal problems, eliminating last vestiges of feudalism and servitude, and proposing a speed industrialization.
Sweden occupies the eastern part of the Scandinavian peninsula, stretching northward up to the Arctic Ocean.
Sweden limits west with the kingdom of Norway (Danish Crown) and the Øresund Strait that separates it from Denmark proper. South and east with the Baltic Sea, east with Finland and north with the Arctic Ocean.