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Sweden (Swedish: Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sverige), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. Sweden borders Norway and Finland. Sweden has a Constitutional Monarchy with a Parliamentary Democracy as its form of government and a highly developed economy. The current monarch is Carl XVI Gustaf. Sweden is a member of the Nordic Union.
There is archaeological evidence that the area that constitutes the present Sweden got its first residents during the Stone Age as the ice sheet of the last ice age receded . The first inhabitants were hunters and gatherers who lived in particular of the riches of the Baltic Sea. A number of archaeological finds from large trading community support the idea that southern Sweden was densely populated during the Bronze Age. During the ninth and tenth century Viking culture was dominant in Sweden with trade, plunder and Colonization to the east , especially in the Baltic countries, Russia and the Black Sea . In the 1200s the landscape laws and national laws introduced, including by Magnus Eriksson . In the 1300s, the royal power and strengthened Norrland kystkområder was colonized and forsvensket . In 1397, the three countries Norway , Denmark and Sweden united under one king . Kalmar Union was not a political union but personal union , and by the 15th century Sweden tried to resist a Danish centralized control under the Danish king. Sweden broke out of the Kalmar Union in 1523 , when Gustav Eriksson Vasa , later known as Gustav I of Sweden , re- established the Swedish crown . In the 17th century , Sweden was one of the great powers of Europe, after the country had successfully participated in the 30- year war . This position disappeared in the 18th century when Russia took power in the Great Northern War . The latest Swedish history has been peaceful . The last major war against Russia in 1809 , the so-called Finnish War when Sweden lost Finland. The last war was against Norway in summer 1814 in Sweden called fälttåget against Norway . The war ended with the Convention of Moss, which the Swedish crown prince accepted the new Norwegian constitution of 17 May and King of Norway agreed to abdicate to make a personal union with Sweden possible. War threatened to break out in 1905 when the Norwegian parliament declared the union with Sweden dissolved. The war was avoided by settlement in Karlstad in 1905. Sweden remained neutral during the First and Second World Wars and the Cold War. The first Nobel Prize ceremony was held in Stockholm in 1901. From 1902 , the scientific prices been formally awarded by the Swedish king , while the peace prize is awarded by the Norwegian Storting.