List of Sultans
- Bahmani: A key economic partner trading posts at Zanzibar as well as an offensive/defensive military ally.
- Sofala: In an alliance and royal marriage
- Most Muslim states.
- Gurkanis: In great relations after conversion to Zaid Shia Islam.
- Oman: Trade Competitor in East Indian Ocean
- Benin: Following what has been seen as a massed incursion by Benin ships, men and religion into East Africa