Sumatera, officialy the Republic of Sumatera (Indonesian: Republic Sumatera or NKRS), is an Unitary Presidential Constitutional Republic in South Asia, It consists of twelve states and two federal territories and has a total landmass of 132,308 sq km. Land borders are shared with Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea, Laos, Vietnam and China. The capital city is Singapore City.
Main Article: Timeline of Sumatera
As the Padri War began in 1803, The Netherlands began a military expedition and won several battles, However, the war is still going on until a few years later. After the victory in the War fort Bonjol, Padri Tribe began to extend its remit to cover the whole of Sumatra on 16 April 1840. In this Time the Padri Leader announced the kingdom of Sumatra as Freedom Nation. On January 16, 1894 Sumatran kingdom ended and a new era replaced as republic Sumatra.
In Astronomically, Sumatera located between 28 ° N - 11 ° S and 95 ° E - 141 ° E., by the Geographically, the region is located between two continents (Asia and the continent of Australia) and two oceans (Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean). At the North the Countries bordering by East Asia and the Pacific ocean, while in the South bordered the Indian Ocean and the continent of Australia, in the West borders the region of South Asia and the Indian Ocean and in the East bordered by the Pacific Ocean, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam and Laos.
The Countrie total area is 3,236,002 sq km, making it the world's sixth largest country by total area, and includes approximately 702 sq km of Micronesia and 40% of water area.
It is estimated that there are about 35,000 species of plants are found in Sumatra. while for fauna, the Sumatera divided into two regions, including regions of oriental and australis, more than 600 species of mammals and butterflies around 100 species, around 600-1500 reptile species and 250 amphibian species. distribution of fauna fauna Sumatran divided into western, central and eastern.
Sumatera is a republic with a presidential system. As a unitary state, power is concentrated in the central government.Four amendments to the 1900 National Constitution have revamped the executive, judicial, and legislative branches. The President of Sumatera is the head of state and head of government, commander-in-chief of the Sumatera National Armed Forces, and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. The president appoints a council of ministers, who are not required to be elected members of the legislature. The 1894 presidential election was the first in which the people directly elected the president and vice president.The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms.
Foreign relations and military
Sumatera National Armed Forces (TNRS) include the Army (TNRS-AD), Navy (TNRS–AL, which includes marines),Air Force (TNRS–AU) and Space (TNRS-ALA).The army has about 1,400,000 active-duty personnel. Defense spending in the national budget was 2% of GDP in 2012, which represents approximately 900 billion dollars (ranked first, next the USA) and is controversially supplemented by revenue from military commercial interests and foundations. The Republic also has as many as 5000 nuclear weapons, 30 of them have been blown up.
The country is divided in 60 province, one Special Districts, where is located the Singapore City, both in the continental part; and two territories outside the continent, one in the Micronesia and other in the border of Laos.
Sumatera has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play significant roles.The country is the largest economy in Asia and a member of the G-20 major economies.Sumatera's estimated gross domestic product (nominal), the national GDP is the second largest in the world after the USA. The Republic has the first place by per capita GDP. The country has a lot of resources, it has 16th large oil deposits and it is the fourth producer of gold in the world.
More than 78% of the population in the Republic lives in cities. Only ten cities contain more than one-third of the total population.
The tenth most important metropolitan areas in the Republic:
|1||Mekong City||Lanna||19,065,155||6||Singapore City||Singapore||7,183,700|
|4||Aceh City||Banda Aceh||9,001,512||9||Brunei Islamic City||Malaya||2,011,809|
|5||Bangkok||Siam Province||8,280,925||10||Kuala Lumpur||Malaya||2,627,172|
SportsSports in Sumatera are generally male-orientated and spectator sports are often associated with illegal gambling.The most popular sports are badminton and football. Sumateran Player have won the Thomas Cup (the world team championship of men's badminton) thirteen of the twenty-six times that it has been held since 1949, as well as numerous Olympic medals since the sport gained full Olympic status in 1992. Traditional sports include sepak takraw, and bull racing in Madura.
Sumatera Republic is the host of two Olympic Games and once Winter Olympic: Singapore City 1984, Bhaka 2002 and Mekong City 2004, Sumatera has its own Formula One track – the Sepang International Circuit. It runs for 310,408 km (192,288 mi), and held its first Grand Prix in 1999.