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Sudan, formally known as the Socialist Republic of the Sudan (Jumhuriat Aishtirakiat Alssudan) is a Marxist state in north Africa. It shares borders with Egypt, Libya, Chad, the Congo, Uganda, Ethiopia, and Kenya.
Sudan was home to numerous ancient civilizations, including Kush, Kerma, Nobatia, Alodia, Makuria, Meroe, and various others. During the pre-dynastic period, Nubia and Egypt, were identical and had the same pharaonic systems as each other. Due to its proximity to Egypt; Sudan has had a large part in the Middle East, being Christianized in the 6th century and Islamized in the 15th.
In 1821, the Ottoman ruler of Egypt, had invaded and annexed northern Sudan. In 1879, the great world powers forced Egyptian leader Ismail I to abdicate, establishing his son Tewfik in his place. Eventually Mahdists rebelled in Sudan, giving them a semi-independent status, however in 1899 the Mahdists surrendered and Sudan became a British colony.
Sudan was administered under the United Kingdom and Egypt, although in reality it was simply just a British colony. It was run by a governor appointed by Egypt with British consent, though the British were keen to reverse the process. Sudan was involved militarily in the East African Campaign of the Second World War; the Sudan Defense Port played an active part in responding to the early invasions from Italian troops in East Africa as well as some in Libya. The continued occupation by the United Kingdom fueled nationalist backlash in Egypt, with Egyptian leaders ready to recognize a single independent state consisting of the two separate colonies. The Egyptian Revolution finally started the march towards Sudanese independence, as the monarchy was abolished and the new leader of Egypt was part Sudanese. Eventually a polling process was carried out, and Ismail al-Azhari was elected prime minister of the modern Sudanese government. On 1 January 1956, the Egyptian and British flags at the People's Palace were lowered, with the new Sudanese flag being raised.
Sudan's early days were marred by numerous coups and scandals. A democratic government under Ismail al-Azhari was created in 1955, and in 1956 Sudan gained official independence. Dissatisfied by the new government, a coup d'état was launched in 1969, with Gaafar Nimery becoming prime minister; abolishing parliament and outlawing all political parties. Another coup occurred in 1971, this time shaping the government of modern-day Sudan. Abdel Khaliq Mahjub, Sudanese Communist leader, was put into office.
Marxist Sudan had support from South Yemen, later just Yemen, the Soviet Union, and Ethiopia. All of these proved to be solid trade partners with Sudan rising from an impoverished African state to a regional power with influence ranging from Chad to Uganda, with the CASR in between. The nation never had much of a military history; the only wars Marxist Sudan has fought in are its civil war; which ended a year after the coup and small-scale conflicts with regional militants.
Sudan is a minor power in Africa, though it is often overshadowed by its northern brother, Egypt. Sudan has a relatively stable government, though it is more conservative than most Marxist states with some laws clearly being based off of the rules of Islam. However, attempts to liberalize the country have occurred, with traditional Islamic headdresses not being mandatory and freedom of religion allowed. The nation is currently ruled by Hashem al Atta.
Modern-day Sudan is a dictatorship, with democracy being non-existent; there aren't even phony elections. However, the nation is fairly calm compared to other past dictatorships; no genocides or mass executions of political opponents have never truly happened, though insulting the Party results in a one-year jail sentence.