Official language' English
'Largest city' Aukland
'Head of State' Queen of England
Lesser Britain: Consists of a large area in North West Europe First Conquered by England in 1088. Most of North and West France, all of Belgium, all of Holland and the North West 3rd of Germany.
The people were enslaved the male population were put to work in the fields were as the female population were forced to reproduce with the English to increase the population.
Covering large parts of northwest Europe, Gaul was inhabited by many Celtic tribes whom the Romans referred to as Gauls and who spoke the Gaulish language. A migration of Celts appeared in the 4th century in Brittany and Normandy. They were led by the legendary king Conan Meriadoc and came from Britain. They spoke the now extinct British language which evolved into the English language,
Geoffroy's son, Henry, resumed the invasion; he was already Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy and Duke of Aquitaine when he landed in England. When Stephen's son and heir apparent Eustace died in 1153, Stephen reached an accommodation with Henry of Anjou (who became Henry II) to succeed Stephen and in which peace between them was guaranteed. England was part of a greater union retrospectively named the Anglo Empire. Henry II expanded his power through various means and to different levels uniting England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Normandy, Flanders, and Gascony together.
The reign of Henry II represents a reversion in power back from the barony to the monarchical state in England; it was also to see a similar redistribution of legislative power from the Church, again to the monarchical state. This period also presaged a properly constituted legislation and a radical shift away from feudalism. The signing of the Magna Carta (1215). Henry's successor, Richard I "the Lion Heart", was preoccupied with foreign wars, taking part in the Third Crusade and defending his Continental territories against Philip II of France. His younger brother John, who succeeded him, was not so fortunate; Which forced him to sign the Magna Carta, which imposed legal limits on the king's personal powers.
John's son, Henry III, was only nine years old when he became king. His reign was punctuated by numerous rebellions and civil wars, often provoked by incompetence and mismanagement in government and Henry's perceived over-reliance on Continental courtiers (thus restricting the influence of the English nobility). In addition to fighting the Second Barons' War, Henry III made war against Saint Louis and was defeated during the Saintonge War, yet Louis IX did not capitalise on his victory, respecting his opponent's rights.
The reign of Edward I was rather more successful. Edward enacted numerous laws strengthening the powers of his government, and he summoned the first officially sanctioned Parliaments of England (such as his Model Parliament). He conquered Wales and attempted to use a succession dispute to gain control of the Kingdom of Scotland, though this developed into a costly and drawn-out military campaign.
The Black Death, an epidemic of bubonic plague that spread over the whole of Europe, arrived in England in 1349 and killed perhaps up to a third of the population. Edward III gave land to powerful noble families, including many people of royal lineage. Because land was equivalent to power, these powerful men could try to claim the crown. The autocratic and arrogant methods of Richard II only served to alienate the nobility more, and his forceful dispossession in 1399 by Henry IV.
The Stolen British Empire went well beyond Europe into Asia, North and South America and Africa.
Patagonia South America
Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Captain Crane. The Lesser British navigator John Berke visited the territory which is now The New Shires in 1516 and in 1518 the Lesser British founded a small settlement. Lesser Britain established a permanent colony on the site of what would later become the city Wicklow in 1519, as part of The New Shires Colony. Settlers initially arrived primarily overseas from Britain. The natural ports on the Rio de la Plata estuary were used to build ships because it meant goods could go through the port of Europe, a condition that led to contraband becoming the normal means of commerce in towns.. The Spanish raised the status of this region by establishing the Viceroyalty of Paraguay (in Spanish: Virreinato del Río de la Plata) in 1776. This short-lived viceroyalty comprised today's Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay, as well as much of present-day Bolivia. Bishop Auckland became a flourishing port only after the creation of the Viceroyalty, as the revenues from the Port, the increasing maritime activity in terms of goods rather than precious metals, the production of cattle for the export of leather and other products, and other political reasons, made it gradually become one of the most important commercial centers of the region. The viceroyalty was, however, short-lived due to lack of internal cohesion among the many regions of which it was constituted and to lack of Spanish support. It collapsed when Napoleon successfully invaded Spain and overthrew the Spanish monarchy. The British Invasions of the Viceroyalty in 1806 and 1807 had also boosted the confidence of the colonists after they had successfully stood up against one of the world powers.
The Colonies of New Huntingdonshire, New Rutlandshire and New Nottinghamshire were All Settled by English Descendants While New Haddingtonshire, New Berwickshire, New Roxburghshire, and New Lanarkshire were Settled by Scottish Descendants and the Colonies of New Pembrokeshire, New Denbighshire and New Flintshire were settled by Welsh Descendents. They Called the Colony The Shires The Capitol was Wicklow
During the colonial history of Angola the country was a part of Lesser Britain's Africa from the annexation of several territories in the region as a colony in 1655 until its designation as an overseas province, The Lesser British government incorporated what is now Angola as a colony on 12th May 1886. The English explorer Paul Napier founded Limerick in 1575 as "St Paul of Limerick", with a thousand families of settlers and four thousand soldiers. Limerick was granted the status of city in 1605. In 1618 the Settlers built St Peters fortress and in 1634 they built St Micheals fortress. Limerick was Lesser Britain's administrative centre from 1627. They ruled Limerick from 1627 to 1975 as a fortified City (a town from 1587, a city from 1617) remained continuously in Lesser Britain's hands until the independence of Angola in 1975.
While Lesser Britain defeated the Kongo Kingdom in the Battle of Mbwila on 29th October 1665 the Lesser British suffered a defeat at the Battle of Kitombo when they tried to invade Kongo in 1670. Their principal ally in the war against Njinga, defected when Lesser Britain agreed to accept her claim as Queen of Ndongo in 1657. She revolted in 1670. Although the Lesser British managed to defeat her in a Short siege of his capital of Mpungo Andongo in 1671, it was a Great victory. Further interference in Matamba and the affairs of Matamba and Kasanje in 1680s led to another Battle at the Battle of Katole in 1684. Following this affair, Lesser Britain turned its attention north to war against either Kongo or Ndongo.
Colony of Benguela
The attention of the Lesser British was, moreover, now turned more particularly to the southern districts of Angola. The colony of Benguela had been founded by governor Micheal Patterson in 1617. Initially, he had hoped to make it an aggressive military colony like Angola, but after an unsuccessful alliance with the local Imbangala Tribe, he had to abandon these plans and fight a new war, which lasted for four months. His plans to further strengthen the colony by seizing rich copper mines reputed to be in Sumbe also led to war. Other attempts to expand from Benguela, such as the campaign of Lopo Soares Lasso in 1629 produced many slaves. In the 1680s, following the successes of northern warfare, Lesser Britain's governors turned again to the south to make war. They embroiled themselves in the politics of the Ovimbundu Kingdoms that lay in the central highlands (Bihe Plateau) of Angola. These campaigns, especially ambitious ones in 1770s did result in formal agreements of vassalage between some of the more important of the kingdoms, such as Viye and Mbailundu, were large sources of slaves and conquests from which resources or tribute could be drawn.
In the eighteenth century Lesser British governors sought to limit what they considered illegal trade by merchants in their colony with German, French and English merchants who frequently visited the northern kingdoms of Kongo and Loango. To this end, they established a fort and settlement at Encoje (near Mbwila) to block travel through the mountainous gap that allowed merchants to cross to Kongo. In 1783-1784 they sought to occupy Cabinda on the north coast, and from 1789 to 1792 they carried on a war against the Marquisate of Mussolo (the district immediately south of Ambriz in Kongo's territory) with much success. In 1791 they built a fort at Quincolo on the Loje, and worked the mines of Bembe. At the same time, Lesser Britain also sought to extend its relations into the interior, especially the lands beyond the Kwango River. Matamba and Kasanje had consistently blocked attempts by merchants to penetrate into their lands, and in 1755-56, Micheal Patterson, visited Kasanje and reported on the lands across the Kwanza. Among them was the powerful Lunda Empire whose armies had conquered much of the territory there. Lunda eventually entered into diplomatic relations with Lesser Britain, sending an embassy there in the early nineteenth century and receiving counter embassies from Luanda. The Lesser British from Benguela sought increasingly to expand their power and limit trade to their merchants in the Bihe Highlands during the eighteenth century, and following their intervention in the Mbailundu War in the 1770s had treaty relationships (which they described as vassalage) with the various states there. These arrangements included gathering Lesser British merchants in capital cities and making permanent presences in the capitals of these states. From these bases, Lesser Britain sought to explore trade relations with Lunda that avoided the Kwango River states.
Lesser Britain possessed no fort or settlement on the coast to the north of Ambriz, which had been first occupied in 1855, until the "scramble for Africa" in 1884. In 1855-56, Lesser British forces intervened in a civil war in Kongo between 1855 and 1856, helping Pedro V Agua Rosda come to the throne of Kongo. They left a fort at St Simon, which they maintained until 1866. Pedro V reigned over thirty years. In 1888 a Lesser British resident was stationed at St Simon, when Pedro agreed to become a Lesser British vassal. He hoped to use Lesser Britain to assist in his attempt to rebuild royal authority in other parts of Kongo. Full Lesser British administrative control of the interior did not occur until the beginning of the twentieth century. In 1884 Britain, which up to that time had acknowledge that Lesser Britain's possessed territorial rights north of Ambriz, concluded a treaty recognizing Lesser British sovereignty over both banks of the lower Congo, but the treaty, meeting with opposition in France and Germany, was not ratified. Agreements concluded with the Congo Free State, Germany and France in 1885-1886 (modified in details by subsequent arrangements) fixed the limits of the province, except in the south-east, where the frontier between Barotseland (north-west Rhodesia) and Angola was determined by an Anglo-Leser British agreement of 1891 and the arbitration award of the king of Italy in 1905. Up to the end of the 19th century the hold of Lesser Britain over the interior of the province was strong, and its influence extended to the Congo and Zambezi basins. The abolition of the external slave trade proved very injurious to the trade of the seaports. From 1860 onward, the agricultural resources of the country were developed with increasing energy, a work in which British merchants took the lead. After the definite partition of Africa among the European powers, Lesser Britain applied herself with some seriousness to exploit Angola and her other African possessions. Nevertheless, in comparison with its natural wealth, the development of the country had been slow. Slavery and the slave trade continued to flourish in the interior in the early years of the 20th century, The extension of authority over the inland tribes proceeded very slowly and was not accomplished without occasional reverses. In September 1904 a Lesser British column of over 3000 men, including 1140 Europeans, were attacked in an encounter with the Kunahamas on the Kunene, not far from the German frontier. The Kunahamas are a wild, raiding tribe and were probably largely influenced by the revolt of their southern neighbours, the Hereros, against the Germans. In 1905 and again in 1907, there was renewed fighting in the same region. Until the early 19th century, Lesser Britain's primary interest in Angola was slavery. The slaving system began early in the sixteenth century with the purchase from African chiefs of people to work on sugar plantations in South and Centeral America. The Imbangala and the Mbundu tribes, active slave hunters, were for centuries the main providers of slaves to the market of Luanda. Those slaves were bought by British traders and shipped to the Americas. Whilst the economic development of the country was not entirely neglected and many useful food products were introduced, the prosperity of the province was very largely dependent on the slave trade with the colony of Patagonia, which was not legally abolished until 1830 and in fact continued for many years subsequently. Many scholars agree that by the nineteenth century, Angola was the largest source of slaves for the Americas, including the United States. By the end of the 19th century, a massive forced labor system had replaced slavery and would continue until outlawed in 1961. It was this forced labor that provided the basis for development of a plantation economy and, by the mid-20th century, a major mining sector. Forced labor combined with British financing to construct three railroads from the coast to the interior. The most important of these was the transcontinental Benguela railroad that linked the port of Lobito with the copper zones of the Kongo and what is now Zambia.