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Oligarchy (de facto)
|Legal status||Disbanded by decree of the General Secretary of the Communist Party|
|Purpose||Prevention of the New Union Treaty, Reversal of the Policies, Perestroika and Glasnost, governance for planned six-month State of Emergency.|
|Headquarters||Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union|
Soviet Ministry of Internal Affairs
The State Committee of the State of Emergency was a Committee that ruled the Soviet Union from 1991-2001. The Committee was commissioned by Gennaday Yanayev and Vladimir Kryuchkov, the head of the Ministry of State Security (KGB). In accordance to the 1995 Constitution, State Committees of the State of Emergency can be formed at the request of the Central Committee and Politboro, if the Policies of the Government either violate the Soviet Constitution or threaten the territorial integrity of the Soviet Union.
In August of 1991, The Committee seized power overthrowing the Soviet Government and placed several leaders under arrest for "Treason Against the Soviet Union". The Committee claimed that Mikhail Gorbachev was forced to resign due to Ill health and that per request, an emergency committee be appointed to oversee the transition of power.
Resistance to the Committee was strong. Boris Yeltsin, however, was nowhere to be found (believed to be under house arrest) and because of this, it crumbled within a month as the promise of Gennaday Yanayev appeared more and more popular.
In October of 1991, Spies for the Resistance infiltrated the Soviet Government and learned the location of several leaders, including Gorbachev and Yeltsin and smuggled them out of the country two months later.
Hoping to re-establish order, the Committee set out to reclaim the Baltic Nations, who seceded just as the Coup was starting. The Committee did not recognize it and like all other Gorbachev reforms, called the actions treasonous, despite the 1977 Constitutional clause permitting the secession of any of the 15 republics.
On January 21, 1992, the Soviet Union, claiming it to be an act of self-defense in response to an attack in Leningrad (A False-Flag Operation), invaded the Baltic Nations of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The War would ultimately spill over into the Soviet Union becoming a civil war.
In October of 1993, the Russian White House, where the Committee met, was shelled by Resistance groups.
The Committee voted on November of 1993, to formally surrender and agreed to recognize the Independence of the Baltics, as well as to pay more than ten billion USD's in reparations.
Already having reversed the 1989 amendments, the Soviets revised the 1977 Constitution to include several clauses and the removal of the independence clause. The revised document detailed that a State Committee on the State of Emergency (or Emergency Committee), can be established if the Policies of the Government either Violate the Soviet Constitution, or violated the Territorial Integrity of the Soviet Union. The Six articles specified the role of the Committee and what powers it has, as well as the timetable it has to re-establish order. The Supreme Soviet also gained more power as did the Communist Party.
Since 1996, the Committee has been pressured to disband, both by the Hardliners who found their way into power, and members of the Committee itself. The Economic Crisis that followed the Baltic Wars however, kept the Committee in power for several more years. Yanayev, who was the Committee's chairmen and the Party's General Secretary, found it difficult to balance power.
In 2000, Yanayev resigned was replaced by Gennaday Zyuganov, a member of the Committee, and a reformist. Zyuganov finally issued the decree on September 8, 2001 and signed it the next day.
The eight members included the following:
- Gennady Yanayev (1937–2010), Vice President
- Valentin Pavlov (1937–2003), Premier
- Boris Pugo (1937–1991), Interior Minister
- Dmitry Yazov (b. 1924), Minister of Defence and Marshal of the Soviet Union
- Vladimir Kryuchkov (1924–2007), Chairman of the KGB
- Oleg Baklanov (b. 1932), First Deputy Chairman of the Defense Council of the USSR
- Vasily Starodubtsev (1931–2011), Chairman of the Peasants' Union of the USSR
- Alexander Tizyakov (b. 1926), President of the Association of State Enterprises
Table of Members
|Politician||Original Role||Role While in the Committee||Lifespan||Timeline||
Reason For Departure
|Gennady Yanayev||Vice President||
General Secretary of the Communist Party (1991-2000)
|Boris Pugo||Interior Minister||Interior Minister||1937-1991||1991||Death|
|Dimitry Yazov||Minister of Defense and Marshall of the Soviet Union||Minister of Defense and Marshall of the Soviet Army||b. 1924||1991-1996||Resignation from Committee, Maintained rank as Minister of Defense|
|Vladimir Kryuchkov||Chairman of the KGB||Chairman of the KGB||1924-2007||1991-1995||Resignation from the Soviet Government|
|Oleg Baklanov||First Deputy Chairman of the Defense Council of the USSR||First Deputy Chairman of the Defense Council of the USSR||b. 1931||1991-1997||Resignation from Committee, Retained his Position as First Deputy Chairman of the Defense Council of the USSR|
|Vasily Starodubtsev||Chairman of the Peasants' Union of the USSR||
Chairman of the Peasants' Union of the USSR
Special Advisor (2001)
|Alexander Tizyakov||President of the Association of State Enterprises||President of the Association of State Enterprises||b. 1926||1991-2001||Disbandment|
|Anatoly Lukyanov||Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR||Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR (1991-1993)
Member of the Politboro (1993-1995)
Special Advisor (1995-2000)
First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Russian SFSR (2000-)
|b. 1930||1991-2000||Resignation From Committee, Maintained Rank as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Russian SFSR.|
|Alexander Lukashenko||First Secretary of the Communist Party of Belarus||
First Secretary of the Communist Party of Belarus
First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Russian SFSR (1993-2000)
Chairman of the Committee (2000-2001)
- Gennaday Zyuganov: Chairman, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
- Alexander Lukashenko: Deputy Chairman, First Secretary of the Communist Party of Belarus
- Valentin Pavlov: Former Soviet Premier, Senior Advisor to the State Committee
- Dimitry Yazov: Former Minister of Defense and Former Marshall of the Soviet Army
- Vasily Starodubtsev: Former Chairman of the Peasants' Union of the USSR
- Alexander Tizyakov: Former President of the Association of State Enterprises
- Anatoly Lukyanov: Former Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and Former Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian FSFR
- Gennaday Yanayev: Former General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Last Meeting: August 1, 2001 (In Regards to Disbandment)