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Spithridates' Axe

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May 334 BC
Alexander the Great is killed in an attempt to invade the Persian Empire. His army falls apart. Some of the troops decide to go home, other troops decide to continue fighting under the leadership of general Parmenion and general Cleitus.
June 21, 334 BC
Antipater, who was appointed by Alexander to take care of the homeland during his absence, declares himself Steward of Macedon. Although most Macedonians approve of him being the new leader, they recognise that he will ever be comparable to Alexander or Philip. Many Greek cities are seeing a new opportunity to regain their independence and are already secretly making plans to revolt.
August 334 BC - October 326 BC
During the Greek Civil War many Greek city-states declare independence. Sparta emerges once again as a major power in the region, subjugating nearly all of the Peloponnese and forming an alliance with Epirus. Athens restores the Delian League and in October 326 BC Antipater of Macedon recognises the independence of Athens and her allies. Antipater does succeed in pacifying Thessaly and Boeotia.
334 BC - 307 BC
Following Alexanders death, general Parmenion and general Cleitus decide to continue fighting the Persians, starting The Great Unrest.
326 BC - 288 BC
After having restored the Delian League, Athens turns her attention to the colonies in Southern Italy and Southern Gaul. A new wave of colonists heads west, strengthening the old colonies and founding new ones.

Sparta and the Spartan-controlled territories evolve into a feudal society in which the Spartan nobility is the heavily privileged upper-caste. There are tensions between Athens and Sparta, much like a ‘cold war’.

326 BC - 313 BC
When the Romans threaten to attack the Greek colony of Neapolis, the Athenians decide to send troops to Italy. Together with the Samnite League, the Greeks succeed in stopping the Roman invasion.

A Samnite warlord named Gaius Pontius decides to go on the offensive with a united Samnite army and some Greek mercenaries. In 321 BC, the Samnites sack Rome. Pontius continues his successful campaign. In 313 BC, after Etruscan armies have been defeated in battle by the Samnites several times, many Etruscan towns have been subjugated and the last remaining Etruscan princes have surrendered to Pontius. Pontius declares himself king of all Italians and makes the other Samnite leaders his vassals. The Greek colonies in Italy remain independent but have intensive economical and political contacts with the Samnite Empire.

320 BC - 306 BC
Chandragupta Maurya, a general serving king Dhana Nanda, achieves a legendary status during his lifetime for his famous campaigns. Within four years he adds the Punjab region, Kashmir and Assam to the Nanda Empire.

The Persians, who fear this new general and don’t want to fight a war on the far eastern front now that Asia Minor has descended into anarchy, sign a pact of non-aggression with Dhana Nanda. Being forbidden to expand further west by his king, Chandragupta fights several campaigns in Southern India during the last ten years of his life, expanding the southern border of the Nanda Empire to the Krishna river. He dies in battle fighting the Telugu in 306 BC.

301 BC - 285 BC
In 301 BC Bindusara, son of Chandragupta Maurya, becomes a general under the Nanda Empire. By 299 BC he has finished the work of his father by conquering the Telugu. In 286 BC Bindusara conquers the Kalinga kingdom in a swift and aggressive campaign. His eighteen-year-old son Ashoka fights in his fathers army and sees the atrocities his father commits and that he too has to commit. He secretly converts to Buddhism after meeting a Buddhist monk. Nevertheless he obeys the orders of his father. When Bindusara is assassinated by a Kalingan loyalist in 285 BC, Ashoka understands that the king of Nanda expects him to take his fathers place as a general. Ashoka then decides to choose his Buddhist principles over his loyalty to the king and become a beggar. When he hears about the king's plans to persecute him for high treason, he flees the Empire and settles in Carmania. There he becomes a teacher and founds the Iranian School of Buddhism.
288 BC – 274 BC
The increasing influence of Athens over the western Mediterranean threatens the position of Carthage, leading to a naval war in 288 BC known as the First Carthaginian-Athenian War. After 279 BC Athens and her allies are forced to fight on a second front when the Galatians invade Greece. Carthage takes this opportunity to annex the Greek colonies in Southern Italy and push the pro-Athenian Samnites out of the southernmost parts of Italy. In 274 BC Athens formally admits defeat.

Because the Carthaginians now control the Strait of Messina and the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Greek colonies in Southern Gaul are now more or less cut off from the Greek homeland, but they survive and thrive through trade and alliance with the indigenous Gauls, who in turn benefit from them.

285 BC - 169 BC
The Nanda Empire prospers. Trade along the coast of Birma is in their hands.
279 BC - 273 BC
Galatians invade Macedon in 279 BC and depose the Steward the same year. The Galatians then march into Epirus, where they meet a stronger resistance. A strong Sparta honors her alliance with Epirus and sends an army consisting of tens of thousands of men over to fight the invaders. At Pambotis Lake near Dodona, the joint forces of Sparta and Epirus cause the Galatians to run. The Galatians return to Macedon march towards Athens later that year, forcing the Delian League to fight on a second front during their war against Carthage.

The Delian League and the allied kingdoms of Sparta and Epirus set aside their differences and join forces. While Sparta tries to drive the Galatians out of Boeotia, Phocis, Aetolia and Thessaly, Epirus fights them in the Pindos Mountains and the Delian League tries to get hold of Chalcidice and the coast of Southeast Thrace. In 273 BC the Galatians have faced enough defeats and sign a peace treaty with the Greek states, in which they keep their own kingdom north of the Balkan mountain range, but concede all the areas that the Greek states have conquered while fighting them. Now Boeotia, Phocis, Aetolia and Thessaly are added to the Spartan Kingdom, the Pindos Mountains are added to Epirus' territory and Chalcidice and the southern coasts of Thrace are added to the Delian holdings.

274 BC - 188 BC
The Carthiginian Golden Age. After the victories over the Delian League and the Pontid Samnite kingdom, Carthage enters a century of peace and prosperity in which the city continues to colonize previously unknown territories. At the end of the Golden Age, trade along the Atlantic coasts of Mauretania and Hispania are monopolized by Carthage and trade factories as far away as Armorica, Albion and Eire have been founded.
274 BC - 188 BC
During that same century the Greek colonies in Gaul unite under one elected Strategos who leads their common army to face hostile Gauls and the threat of a new war against Carthage. These Greeks control trade along the coasts of the Provence, Languedoc and Catalonia and up the Rhone river.

The Arvernians profit from their contacts with the Greeks. With Greek weapons and armor they conquer most of south-eastern Gaul and in their oppida they build temples modelled after Greek examples to gods like Apollo Belenos and Hermes Lugos.

232 BC - 225 BC
In a reaction to the increasing power of the Arvernians, king Acco of the Boii Celts starts a swift seven years campaign in order to unite the Boii, Insubres, Cenomani, Lingones and Senones under his centralized rule. During this campaign, Acco had most chieftains submit to his rule voluntarily, destroying those who did not and he making an example of hostile neighbouring tribes by decimating their population. In 225 BC, he is crowned Rigonrix (king of kings) and he rules all of Northern Italy and the Alps. The Samnites and the Arvernians are quick to seek a lasting peace with the new empire.
210 BC - 190 BC
Carthage leads an invasion of Egypt. The invasion is successful but the Carthaginian army is greatly weakened.
188 BC - 181 BC
The Athenians, who are prospering again after some difficult times, still want to take revenge against the Carthaginians. The Carthaginians at this point have difficulty keeping their vast empire together. The sinking of an Athenian ship by the Carthaginians at the Strait of Messina is used as an excuse to start the Second Carthaginian-Athenian War. After seven years of fighting on open sea a large army of the Delian League sacks and occupies Carthage. The empire has now formally fallen, but Carthaginian aristocracy is still in charge of Numidia, Mauretania and south-eastern Hispania and they still control the trading networks in the region. Athens takes control of all other Carthaginian territories including Egypt.

The now large Delian League faces internal problems and Athens faces increasing political pressure from the Spartans and the Celts.

150 BC - 145 BC
After years of negotiations, the Athenians, the rest of the Delian League, the Greeks in Gaul and the Carthaginian nobility sign a treaty forming the Hellenic Commonwealth, a political, military and economic union. The Commonwealth is composed of strong, democratic city states each appointing representatives to a Synedrion or Council. The surrounding rural areas are ruled by the aristocratic nobility of the cities, at the discretion of their respective Assemblies. The Commonwealth has a single professional military, governed by the Council. Athens becomes the capital of the Commonwealth and gains great influence over the economy, the army and the Synedrion. Rome once more rises to greatness as a key member of the Commonwealth. The Carthaginian nobles surrender control of West Africa and Hispania to the Commonwealth in return for being allowed to return to Carthage and gaining economic control of its surrounding territories as well as influence over its Popular Assembly.

The Commonwealth is a great success and quickly prospers economically. It gains trade superiority in the Mediterranean and more and more peoples are forced to join to avoid facing bankruptcy. The Spartan economy also takes a downturn.

130 BC - 122 BC
Democratic revolutions break out throughout the Samnite regions and many of the new republics vote to join the Commonwealth. The Samnite kings and nobility resent this and begin talks of alliance with the Spartans. Sparta and its vassals are also afraid of the rising power of the Commonwealth so agree to a military alliance with the Samnites. Athens feels betrayed by this and votes to prepare plans to attack the Samnites. The Athenian Stratigos Aristosthenes meets with the Spartan Kings and Ephoroi and gets them to promise to remain neutral in the conflict in return for a much needed economic deal. He announces this deal to the Eccleisia and Synedrion who immediately vote to declare war on the Samnite Kingdom.
122 BC - 120 BC
Samnite - Athenian War. Commonwealth is initially victorious but the tide of war turns when the Arvernians and Celts join on the side of the Samnites and begin attacking Italian territories, eventually laying siege to Rome. The Commonwealth army responds and pushes the barbarians back north. With peace movements breaking out across the Commonwealth, Athens decides to expedite the war by forging an alliance with the Spartans. Sparta joins the war on the Commonwealth side leading to a swift victory. The Celtic, Arvernian and Samnite territories fall to the Greeks. In return for their help, the Spartans receive a large portion of barbarian territory and a substantial monetary reward. Sparta quickly establishes itself as a major power again and forges a trade deal with the Commonwealth.
120 BC - 100 BC
Following the defeat of the Samnites, Celts and Arvernians, Athens and Sparta are the only major powers in the Mediterranean. They forge a trade alliance and open their borders to each other. This marks the beginning of the First Great Hellenic Peace (Prote Hellenice Eirine). Increased trade with the Commonwealth makes Spartan subjects jealous of the Athenians' extravagant lifestyles and political, social and sexual liberty. In response to growing demands for freedom from the peasants in Northern Greece, the Spartan King and nobles pass the Equality Declaration which abolishes slavery and establishes equality of the sexes among peasants. This is really just a scheme to better control the peasants and to differentiate them from the Commonwealth. Towards the end of the century, civil unrest grows.
100 BC - 93 BC
Peasant revolutions break out across Spartan territory. The rebels seize land from the nobles and declare their own governments. In an attempt to destroy Sparta, the Commonwealth funds the rebels and pays mercenaries to protect them. The Spartan King Archidon sends in the army to crush the revolt but they defend themselves with weapons supplied by Athens. The Spartan nobility is forced to retreat to Sparta and loses huge amounts of wealth. As the bloody civil war goes on, the nobles meet with leading Athenian Stratoigoi and members of the Commonwealth Synedrion to discuss a deal. The Athenians offer to send in an army to crush the revolt and give the land back to the nobles in return for Sparta surrendering its armed forces and joining the Commonwealth. The Spartans dismiss this as ridiculous and walk out of the talks, insulted. The peasants win a decisive victory against the Spartans and push the Spartan army out of Northern Greece. The army retreats from overseas territories to crush a revolt in the Peloponese and Archidon signs a treaty recognisng the independence of many Spartan rural territories. Sparta loses only 5% of its army but 55% of its land and 80% of tis noble's wealth. Many in the Spartan aristocracy go bankrupt and have their palaces and concubines confiscated for failure to pay debts. The deal only encourages more riots and the nobles lose even more of their land. The nobles attempt to convince Archidon to change his mind but he believes that Spatra will be stronger by concentrating on its highly populated urban areas. Facing desperation, the Spartan Gerousia (composed mainly of nobles) orders one of the Ephoroi to assassinate Archidon and appoint his 8 year old son to his place. The Gerousia then passes a decree accepting the Athenian proposal and joining the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth army invades the former Spartan territories and quickly restores order, giving the nobles back their land. The Spartan army surrenders its arms, bases and mercenaries ot the Commonwealth and its officers are sent back to Sparta. Sparta officially joins the Commonwealth.
93 BC - 88 BC
Spartan territories are fully integrated into the Commonwealth. The Spartan people realise they have been stabbed in the back by the nobles and the Apella votes to abolish the Gerousia and leave the Commonwealth. The Spartan army reforms and launches a war against the nobles and the Commonwealth.
88 BC - 84 BC
The Final Peloponesian War ends in a Commonwealth victory. Sparta is occupied and slowly reformed by the Athenians. Military education and conscription is abolished as is the dropping of babies off cliffs. Slavery is re-established in all former Spartan territories. An attempt to remove the equality of women is met by fierce opposition in Athens by the heterai which leads to a compromise act passed by the Synederion, recognising heterai as equal to men throughout the Commonwealth while restoring the inferior status of peasant women in Sparta. Sparta is made a full democracy and is eventually given the vote and a seat in the Synedrion after being economically drained.
84 BC - 80 BC
Beginning of the Second Great Hellenic Peace (or Pax Graeca in Latin). The Commonwealth has full control of the Mediterranean. Democracy, philosophy and mathematics flourish. Rome, Athens, Carthage and Memphis become great centres of democracy and civilisation.
78 BC - 74 BC
The Commonwealth launches a war on the crumbling Persian Empire, capturing Sinai, Judea, Paphos, Tyre and Damascus.
48 BC - 40 BC
Julius Ceasar is elected consul of the Roman City State and takes control of the Italian wing of the Commonwealth army. Under his command the Commonwealth invades West Hispania, Gaul, Helvetia and much of Southern Germania. He attempts an invasion of Brittania only to be crushed by the Celtic warlord Boudica. On returning home, the Synedrion appoints him Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth forces.
30 AD - 40 AD
Christianity emerges in the province of Judea. It quickly spreads across the Commonwealth and gains followings in Athens and Rome. The Assemblies of most city states vote to tolerate the Christians although there is much dislike for their conservative lifestyle.
80 AD - 90 AD
Influenced by growing Christian movement and other factors, the Commonwealth experiments with Communism. This leads to an economic collapse which allows Germans and Persians to retake much of previously conquered land. Capitalism is restored and eventually the economy settles to that of a social democracy.
100 AD - 300 AD
The Golden Hellenic Age continues with the Greeks leading successful victories against both the Germans and the Persians. Britannia, Scotia, Eire and Germania are invaded. Reforms within the Commonwealth lead to civil liberties and racial and religious tolerance.
430 AD - 450 AD
Hun invasion of Europe. Greeks are pushed out of Germany by Huns and out of Gaul, Britannia, Scotia, Eire and West Hispania by the fleeing Germans. Within the Commonwealth, slavery is restricted to those of non-Commonwealth ethnicity and the death penalty is restricted to murder and treason.
630 AD - 700 AD
The Islam Caliphate is formed which takes control of Arabia and the Persian Empire. A war with the Commonwealth ensues which ends with a peace treaty giving the Caliphate control of Tyre, Damascus, Judea and much of rural Egypt and Numidia except for the major cities. Jewish emigrants from Judea relocate to major Commonwealth cities.
700 AD - 750 AD
Caliphate breaks down allowing Commonwealth to retake some of lost land. Trade relations are formed with the new Islam nations which are particularly friendly with the now rather large Christian minorities in the Commonwealth.
750 AD - 900 AD
Islam influences lead to the birth of empirical science in Memphis, Egypt. This soon becomes the dominant form of philosophy and leads to great advances in Greek understanding of the universe. Nations of England, Frankia and Visigothia (Spain) form and are quickly influenced by Greek ideas and values. They become democratic and adopt religious tolerance amongst the pagan and Christian religions. The Greeks begin colonising the West and Southern coasts of Africa. The local populations benefit from Greek trade and science and soon set up their own nations.

Increased trade between the Commonwealth and its African colonies leads to a dispute between the Greeks and Visigoths over control of the Gibraltar Strait. The Greeks claim that Gibraltar is within the territories of the City State of New Carthrage while the Visogoths hold that it is within the Cadiz Province.

932 AD - 934 AD
The Visigoth Navy blockades the Strait and taxes all outgoing ships. The Carthaginian aristocracy resents this and creates an incident by ordering their ships to refuse to cooperate with the Visigoths. The Visigoths sink a Carthaginian trade ship and the Commonwealth Navy retaliates by attacking and sinking the blockading ships. The Visigoth Parliament resents this and sends their military to secure the strait by land. The Greek Army retaliates and a war begins. The Visigoths are spectacularly successful and manage to capture Gibraltar and push the Greeks out of the East Hispanic Colonies. A stalemate develops, which the Commonwealth is finally able to break and pushes the Visigoths back into their territory. Unable to fully conquer Hispania, the Greeks agree to a peace settlement whereby they kept their original lands and gained full control of Gibraltar.
1084 AD - 1090 AD
Disputes over pilgrimages to Jerusalem are peacefully resolved between the Greek Christians and the Abassid Caliphate, avoiding the bloodshed of the Crusades. The countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Hunagry form and recognise each others borders after a series of tribal wars in Eastern Europe.
1100 AD - 1186 AD
The Mongol invasion of Asia takes place under Ghengis Khan. The Commonwealth keeps the Turks out of Asia Minor and they instead settle in Northern Persia. After Ghengis' death, the Mongol Empire breaks into smaller Khanates.
1200 AD - 1250 AD
The Commonwealth, the Visigoths, the Franks, the Anglo - Saxons and the Germans race to colonise the New World. South and Central America is colonised (and becomes part of) the Commonwealth while North America is colonised by Germans and Scandinavians whose colonies quickly become independent.

The Nations of Persia and Arabia are re-established in the Middle East as representative democracies. Through political maneuvering, the countries of Ethiopia, Somalia, Makurra, Southern Egypt and Punjabistan become part of the Arabian sphere of influence while Kurdistan, Turkey, Georgia, Kara Kitai and Parthia become part of the Persian sphere of influence.

1250 AD - 1300 AD
The Industrial Revolution leads to drastic reforms of society. Factories, corporations and the modern capitalist economy emerge. Commonwealth cities vote to introduce worker protection provisions and progressive taxation to solve the resultant social problems. Greek ideas greatly influence the shattered Muslim countries which experience their own Enlightenment.

Meanwhile, Russia, Kipchak and China launch invasions of Mongolia, Siberia and Central Asia and share it between them.

1334 AD - 1338 AD

Slave rebellions break out across the Commonwealth, leading to a bloody civil war. The slaves execute thousands of Greek citizens and millions more are forced to evacuate their cities. The Athenian Ecclesia passes a death sentence on all slaves and the Commonwealth army moves in and massacres them. Many citizens are killed by accident. The war ends with millions dead, and with the Commonwealth in economic collapse. The Greek people vote to permanently abolish slavery and later abolish the death penalty as well. The aftermath of the war leads to many women having to go to work and eventually full gender equality is established by law. Greek colonies such as the New Cyclades (Caribbean) use the war as an opportunity to declare independence. They forge alliances with the nearby Inca and Aztecs who have by now become fully Hellenized.

1338 AD - 1400 AD
The German Confederation is formed between the various German States. It has a population and army greater than that of the Commonwealth. German colonies in the New World form the New World Confederation.

Within the Commonwealth, the invention of the Internet leads to drastic social reforms. The Synedrion is replaced by a a Commonwealth - wide Ecclesia, with people voting on decisions by networked electronic polling booths. This leads to centralisation of decision making. The Commonwealth Information System is established which contains information on all citizens and all their financial transactions. Cash is made illegal so that all payments can be made using Identity Cards (which contain genetic fingerprinting information) and can thus be monitored to prevent theft and embezzlement. The people agree to this as they have no problems trusting their government because they are their own government.

1410 AD - 1423 AD
A series of violent wars and revolutions in Asia lead to the great empires of the region collapsing. With new technology pouring in to these regions and with the people yearning for stability, the Athens Peace Conference is held, whereby the new borders of Asia are permanently established. The new Asia is to be composed of small independent states of which, Persia, Arabia, China, Mongolia and Russia are to be the largest.

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