The Territory of Latium, sometimes known as Spanish Latium or simply Latium, was a territory and protectorate of the Spanish Crown from 1514 until its independence in 1642. The territory was de facto a possession of the King, while the Pope was a spiritual leader. However, often the Pope would act as governor of the territory as well.
Latium was officially in possession of the Spanish Habsburgs since the end of the Ottoman-Italian Wars in 1514. By the reluctant signing of the Treaty of Rome, Spain gained ground in Italy after it had crumbled under the might of the Ottoman armies. The territory later joined the Holy Roman Empire through treaties with Emperor Charles V of Spain, where it was known as the Bishopric of Latium.
With the onset of the Seventy Years' War, the religious war between Catholics and Reformists in Europe, Latium pushed for its independence from Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. Many, especially the Pope, were worried that the Spanish sovereignty over the land was causing the Roman Catholic faith to be more influenced by the Crown than by the Cross. With the signing of the Peace of Prague, Latium gained its independence.
Politics versus Faith
Seventy Years' War