While North America was being split by Spain, France and England, South America was completely claimed for Spain due to Castilian and Portuguese Dual Expansion.
Alejandro Rodriguez went separate ways with the West Indies Trade Company after he was kicked of the committee that governed Panama in 1541. Promising revenge he planned to set up a new colony east of Panama in hopes of causing it to falter in power. Rodriguez set up a successful colony, but the Trade Company saw through his plan and made way to bring him down. After disputes and near war between Panama and Rodriguez' Colombia, peace was enforced by the monarchy. To this day, Panama and Colombia continue to resent each other. Rodriguez never took down Panama, as the Trade Company collapsed on its own. His work resulted in a colonial country that survived for many centuries.
Land of Royal Colonies
By the 1600s, all of South America except the impenetrable Amazon and uninhabitable Patagonia belonged to Spain. However, only Colombia and Brazil were privately owned. The Incan Empire had become a subject of the Spanish just like the Aztec, with the same terms of gold for protection. Like usual, the merchants, worried about their own interests, controlled trade to their liking. Later, more colonies were set up. Guyana was established east of Colombia, and La Plata and Uruguay appeared south of Brazil. Originally one colonial nation, the Governor of Argentina gave his brother, who lost the election, Uruguay to prevent a revolt. Fearing the merchants' growth of power, King Juan Carlos I, now in his late years, declared these new territories royal colonies, free from merchant interference. The Portuguese Traders, realizing the new colonies had nothing to offer, let this slide without argument. South America now consisted of the Native Colony of the Inca, the merchant-controlled Brazil, the private colony of Colombia, and the royal colonies of Guyana, La Plata and Uruguay. Other countries, like Chile, Paraguay and Bolivia, won't appear for a long time. Suriname, English Guyana, and French Guyana never come into existence.