The Soviet wars in Afghanistan lasted nine years from 1974 to 1989 although insurgency continues until the end of WW-III. Part of the Cold War, it was fought between Soviet-

Mortar attack on Shigal Tarna garrison, Kunar Province, 87

Mujahideen fighters in Kunar Province of Afghanistan in 1987 making their last stand.

led Afghan forces against multinational insurgent groups called the Mujahideen, mostly composed of one large alliance – the Peshawar Seven. The Peshawar Seven insurgents received military training in neighboring Pakistan and China, as well as weapons and billions of dollars from the United States, United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and other countries. The war resulted in millions of Afghans fleeing their country, mostly to Pakistan and Iran. Hundreds of thousands of Afghan civilians were killed in addition to the rebels in the war. The initial Soviet deployment of  the 40th Army in Afghanistan began on 1974. The Soviet annexation of Afghanistan started on May 15, 1989, and ended only after WW-III.

1974-Early 1975: Start of the War

On October 31, 1974 the Soviet invaded after discovering that the planner of the terrorist attack in the USSR hides in Afghanistan with help from the Afghan government. The Afghan Armed Forces proved to be no match for the Soviet who moved swiftly and had a very law casualties rate at the start of the War. Meanwhile, telecommunications links to areas outside of Kabul were severed, isolating the capital. With a deteriorating security situation, large numbers of Soviet Airborne Forces joined stationed ground troops and began to land in Kabul on December 25. Simultaneously, Amin moved the offices of the president to the Tajbeg Palace, believing this location to be more secure from possible threats.On December 27, 1974, 700 Soviet troops dressed in Afghan uniforms

A Soviet Spetsnaz (special operations) group prepares for a mission in Afghanistan,1975

, including KGB and GRU special forces officers from the Alpha Group and Zenith Group, occupied major governmental, military and media buildings in Kabul, including their primary target – the Tajbeg Presidential Palace. Soviet paratroopers aboard a BMD-1 in Kabul That operation began at 19:00 hr., when the KGB-led Soviet Zenith Group destroyed Kabul's communications hub, paralyzing Afghan military command. At 19:15, the assault on Tajbeg Palace began; as planned, president Hafizullah Amin was killed. Simultaneously, other objectives were occupied (e.g., the Ministry of Interior at 19:15). The operation was fully complete by the morning of December 28. The Soviet military command at Termez, Uzbek SSR, announced on Radio Kabul that Afghanistan had been liberated from there oppressing regime. Soviet ground forces, under the command of Marshal Sergei Sokolov, entered Afghanistan from the north on December 27.  With the arrival of the two later divisions, the total Soviet force rose to over 500,000 personnel. By march 1975 the Soviet have occupied entire Afghanistan.

March 1975– April 1985: Occupation

]After the Soviet occupation. The war now developed into a new pattern: the Soviets occupied the cities and main axis of communication, while the mujahideen,

719px-Muja on radio in Munda Dir

A mujahideen fighter in Kunar uses a communications receiver.

(which the Soviet Army soldiers called 'Dushman,' meaning 'enemy')divided into small groups, waged a guerrilla war. Soviet troops were deployed in strategic areas in the northeast, especially along the road from Termez to Kabul. In the west, a strong Soviet presence was maintained to counter Iranian and western influence. Conversely, some regions such as Nuristan, in the northeast, and Hazarajat, in the central mountains of Afghanistan, were virtually untouched by the fighting, and lived in almost complete independence until the Start of the annexation. The ten long years of occupation was brutal for the soviets and the mujahideen.

March 1985 – April 1989: Soviet offensives

Periodically the Soviet Army undertook multi-divisional offensives into mujahideen-controlled areas. Between 1975 and 1989, nine offensives were launched into the strategically important Panjshir Valley, But this did not helped the Soviets as they truly wanted. Heavy fighting also occurred in the provinces neighbouring Pakistan, where cities and government outposts were constantly under siege by the mujahideen. Massive Soviet operations would regularly break these sieges, but the mujahideen would return as soon as the Soviets left.In the west and south, fighting was more sporadic, except in the cities of Herat and Kandahar, that were always partly controlled by the resistance.The Soviets would bomb villages that were near sites of guerrilla attacks on Soviet convoys or known to support resistance groups. Local peoples were forced to either flee their homes or die as daily Soviet attacks made it impossible to live in these areas. By forcing the people of Afghanistan to flee their homes, the Soviets hoped to deprive the guerrillas of resources and safe havens. The second strategy consisted of subversion which entailed sending spies to join resistance groups and report information as well as bribing local tribes or guerrilla leaders into ceasing operations. Finally, the Soviets used military forays into contested territories in an effort to root out the guerrillas and limit their options. Classic search and destroy operations were implemented using Mil Mi-24 helicopter gunships that would provide cover for ground forces in armored vehicles. Both sides used highly brutal ways to kill each other. The Soviet then tried a different tactic: annexation.

January 1989 – WW-III: Soviet Rule


Soviet peacekeeping forces searching for any mujahideen, 1989

The Soviet decided to annex Afghanistan for two main reason initially. The Wanted the Afghan public to condemn the mujahideen and the fact that They could use Afghanistan as a forward operation Base against Iran, who is very much Pro-west. The Soviet regime in Afghanistan was very kind toward those who are not Mujahideen. The Soviet rebuild the Country and build many afghans to join the Red Army. Unlike the Previous soviet open offensives they made sure to attack mujahideen only in secretly so that the Afghans will like the Soviets. In September 1988, Soviet MiG-23 fighters shot down one Pakistani F-16 and two Iranian AH-1J Cobra, who intruded in Afghan airspace. The Start of the WW=III made the Afghans caught in the middle: some hated the West, and some even more hated the Soviets, nevertheless most of the Afghan public welcomed liberating Allied Troops in Late 1996 with joy.

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