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The Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics (U.S.S.R.; Russian: Союз Советских Cуверенных Республик, Soyuz Sovyetskikh Suverennykh Respublik; abbreviated С.С.С.Р., S.S.S.R.), commonly known as the Soviet Union (Советский Союз, Sovyetsky Soyuz) and informally referred to simply as the Union (Союз, Soyuz) and Russia (Россия, Rossiya), is a federation comprised of two unitary republics and four federal republics extending from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, and from the Arctic Ocean to the Caspian Sea. The Soviet Union is the largest nation in the world by area, and is one of the two prominent superpowers in global politics and world culture (along with the United States). The Soviet Union was first established on December 30, 1922, as a unification of four Soviet Socialist Republics, forming one of the first Communist nations. During World War II (known as the "Great Patriotic War" in the Soviet Union), the Soviets assisted the Allies in a decisive victory over the Axis Powers, but at a large cost of casualties.
After the war, the Soviet Union and the United States would emerge as the two global superpowers. The conflict between Soviet and American interests would lead to the Cold War, which pitted the Communist world and the non-Communist world against each other. Beginning in the mid 1980s, the Soviet Union would go through political and economic change. Programs such as glasnost ("openness") and perestroika ("restructuring") would help eliminate corruption in the USSR, leading to greater morale, and bring an end to the Communist monopoly, not just in the Soviet Union, but globally.
In 31 December 1989, President Mikhail Gorbachev declared on the New Year address about the recreation of the New USSR by Treaty of Moscow. Which is consisting a new federation with a type of a democratic government. Gorbachev himself has also announced that he will resign from the position for a new generation of the government.
The word "soviet" is derived from the Russian word совет (sovyet), which translates into English as council. The term would become synonymous with the Soviet Union during the Russian Revolution, in which a council acted as the governing body of the people. Several governments were established during the revolution, several of which would refer to themselves as a "Soviet Socialist Republic." Four of these SSRs would agree to unite themselves as a single nation in 1922. In a similar manner to the use of the "United States of America," these four republics were united under the "Treaty on the creation of the union of Soviet Socialist Republics."
The short form "Soviet Union" and the abbreviation "U.S.S.R." have becomes the standard for everyday use. Outside the Soviet Union, "Russia" continues to be used as a pars pro toto for the Soviet Union as a whole (similar to the use of "Holland" and "England" for the whole of the Netherlands and the United Kingdom respectively).
Upon the signing of the Treaty of Moscow, the term "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" was officially dropped as the official name. Several new names were proposed, but the most talked as the "Union of Sovereign States," which was officially used in the New Union Treaty. When the constitution was finalized in May 1992, the official name chosen was the "Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics," to allow the continued use of the "Soviet Union" and the "USSR."
On August 20, 1988, the republics of Kazakhstan, Russia, and Uzbekistan would sign the Treaty of Moscow, establishing the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics. Addressing the nation, Mikhail Gorbachev would make mention that a "Bright future is just around the corner." Despite rumors about the USSR annexing additional 3 countries (Manchuria, North Korea and Finland) from 15 republics. With another rumor that the Treaty of Moscow itself has announced that any declare of the independence from the republics or the succession from the Union will be outlaw.
However, President Gorbachov's reform not only to create a new federation, but to give more freedom to the country.
In 31 December 1989, President Mikhail Gorbachov declared on the New Year address about the recreation of the New USSR by Treaty of Moscow. Which is consisting a new federation with a type of a democratic government. Gorbachov himself has also announced that he will resign from the position for a new generation of the government after the January 1, 1990.
Political Divisions in Soviet Union
The Soviet Union is a federation made up of 4 Federal Republics with 2 Unitary Republics and 2 Federal Cities. Each republic runs itself as a sovereign states, working on their own affairs, economy, presidents, and each have their own militias. All have agreed to unite under a single legislature, leader, currency, foreign affairs, and a united militia. Each republic do not have the right to secede from the Union if they so do, which contributed to the reformation of the USSR in 1989. Prior to the signing of the New Union Treaty, the Soviet Union was constitutionally a federation, but ran more as a centralist state in practice. Glasnost and Perestroika brought the centralist ideals out in the open, leading to the formation of a union of sovereign states.