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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (abbreviated U.S.S.R., Russian: Союз Советских Социалистических Республик, СССР; tr.: Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, SSSR), also called the Soviet Union (Russian: Советский Союз; tr.: Sovetsky Soyuz), was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia which was established in 1922.
Emerging from the Russian Empire following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War of 1918–1921, the USSR was a union of several Soviet republics, but the synecdoche Russia—after its largest and dominant constituent state—continued to be commonly used throughout the state's existence. The government and the political organization of the country were defined by the only political party, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
It borders the nations of Finland, Romania, Turkey, Iran (Persia until 1935), Afghanistan, China, Mongolia, Manchukuo and Japan.
The Soviet Union was invaded by Nazi Germany on June 22nd, 1941. It survived the Blitzkrieg, and in late 1942 soundly defeated the Germans at the Battle of Stalingrad. However after the removal of Hitler, the new German army defeated the twin Soviet assaults of Operation Kutuzov and Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev at the Kursk Salient. This led to the Treaty of Minsk.
Today, the Soviet Union is one of the four superpowers that dominate the globe.