The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Commonly Referred to as the Soviet Union) is a Communist State located in the Continents of Europe and Asia and the 3rd largest economic superpower in the world. The Soviet Union was established after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Signing of the Union Treaty in 1922. The State is considered to be one of the last Communist States in the world.
Returning to its Roots
On August 19, 1991, a group of hard line Communists took control of the government in order to stop the perestroika reforms initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev which had already caused the Baltic States to secede. The coup was successful despite all odds reflecting against it.
In order to restore peace, known "subversives" were executed or put into exile. A civil war nearly broke out as resistance to the coup was strong. After a month or so, however, the proposed reforms by Yanayev appeared to be appealing to the Soviet people and people began to defect towards the Communists. The Standoff ended with a resounding victory and a parade of celebration attended by Millions.
Yanayev, however, was merely a puppet of the Emergency Committee who wanted to establish order and stability through any means possible.
The Resistance, however, had not given up. Now organized, the group infiltrated the Soviet government and learned that Gorbachev was alive. In December of 1991, Gorbachev was smuggled out of the country by a group of resistance fighters. Ironically, the Chinese agreed to help them and through the "Stans" got him to China where he was flown to the United States and granted amnesty in Annapolis, Maryland.
The Baltic Wars
The Emergency Committee decided to invade the Baltic States to reclaim control over the area. The army invaded Lithuania on January 2, 1992. The Soviets, however, did not calculate that the war would spill over due to the overwhelming amount of resistance. The Union nearly collapsed and a battle in Moscow caused the Emergency Committee to suppress the movement. The war as a result, ended with the Soviets agreeing to recognize the Independence of the Baltics. This crippled the country's economy. Gennaday Yanayev made a speech, on behest of the Emergency Committee and urged Loyal Communists to stop the "American Puppets" from asserting control.
The Communist Party began to reform announcing a return to its roots. Senior Party members began stepping up as well. Yanayev finally began delivering on his promises and began a massive "re-centralization" of the Soviet Economy. The Emergency Group finally dissolved as the USSR began its economic reform programs. Public works programs, new five year-plans and tighter government control over goods and services caused the USSR to see moderate success.
The 1995 Constitution was enacted. the document was for the most part, the same as the 1977 Constitition but removed the Independence Clause and established that Emergency Committees could be formed if the government took actions that violated the principles of the Soviet Constitution.
Change of Policy
The Soviet Union initially faced corruption, political instability, poor government, and a halt of economic growth caused by the Baltic Wars. The war nearly cost 20 Billion USD's and virtually bankrupted the already, isolated rump state. The Government had no choice but to open itself up to the West.
In 1996, The Soviet Government was being reassembled. Gennady Zyuganov had been elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Russia as a reformist. He Promised to restore the glory of the Soviet Union and to help solve the "impending crisis that faces us all" Zyuganov began crafting his economic policy for the Soviet Union, as the State Committee on the Emergency passed relief bills, but no serious economic commitments.
Zyuganov began analyzing the Perestroika reforms he worked so hard to destroy as well as the New Economic Plan passed by Lenin, texts that had been locked away as part of the censorship of information. Alongside the Policies of Deng Xiaoping, which he obtained from a Chinese Pamphlet, translated by a senior administrator.
Zyuganov decided that the best possible policy was to allow for some Private Enterprises to exist, while maintaining a primarily centralized economy. Zyuganov began by allowing Farmers and small Moscow businesses to sell their goods for a profit. Over the course of two years, Moscow's small business community rose. Only Small Coffee shops, Restaurants, and stores could be private, as the Government maintained control over the basic commodities.
Moscow began seeing immediate economic growth. The GDP of the Russia alone, was higher than the Soviet Union's and could have made it as its own nation, something that dominated the thoughts of most.
In 2000, With a failing economy, Yanayev announced he was stepping down as General Secretary and saw the appointment of Gennaday Zyuganov to replace him.
Zyuganov made his first public appearance in May and proclaimed his goal for "A New Socialism for a New Millennium." Zyuganov emphasized the importance of the tech industry as well as science and pressed for stronger government funding towards those sectors and introduced the reforms to the Soviet Public, and added hopes of a trade agreement with the West
Opening to the West
In 2003, Zyuganov signed a historic trade agreement with the United States. This agreement established economic partnerships between the West and Russia. Despite the agreement, Russia maintained its command economy and refused to expand its sector. Russia did however, allow for some American establishments to open up in Moscow, such as McDonalds which opened its sole location on May 22, 2004.
Russia survived the 2008 Economic Crisis due to the State-Controlled economy and restrictions on Western Goods, as the Trade Agreement dealt with resources and materials only.
In 2010, Russia's 17th Five Year Plan pushed the Soviets into the digital age. Russia created its own internet, the Lyudichistyye (or People Net) and built its own computers and OS, Sovetskayavlast (from the phrase Soviet System) to compete wit the west.
In 2011, The Soviet Union launched music and movie streaming services (Kinopesnya and Vasilyevia), with Alexander Nevsky as the first film to be available for stream and its score the first album to be available.
Soviet forces obtained an American Drone in 2012 and managed to create their own arsenal and used it in ground campaigns in the Middle East.
Drones became a common sight in Moscow, usually for shooting parades and missile tests. The 2015 May Day Parade saw drones alongside the usual armaments of missiles and flags
Rebuilding Military Challenges the West
Russia began rebuilding its military and rapidly saw an increase in arm production and shipments, the most prominent plants in Ukraine produced guns, tanks and airplanes for third world countries.
The Soviet Army was rebuilt as it had recovered from the losses it suffered in the 90's. In 2013, The Soviet nuclear arsenal soared above 20,000 and upwards of five million had been serving in the armed forces actively. Soviet naval vessels and carriers were repaired and some replaced, the Union was once again ready to challenge the West and began planning its accession to the world stage once again
In 2014, Russia sent troops to Iraq to help stop the Islamic State, but has been in a critical confrontation with the West over Syria. Soviets threatened war if the U.S. continued its deployment of forces, and sent troops to aid the Assad regime in its attempt to keep their base.
In 2015, The United States accused the Soviet Union of killing citizens, These claims were called out as propaganda and the Union once again reiterated its threat of Nuclear War if it deployed troops to the region
Government and Politics
The Soviet Economy has always been a Command Economy and saw its planning through Five-Year Plans The economy is now considered to be based on the reforms of Lenin and Gorbachev. The State still maintains its control over most aspects of the Russian economy and only small businesses could be owned on a private level. The Combined Approached, dubbed Russian Socialism or Mixed Communism, saw its economy survive the 2008 Recession and contribute to the world by supplying oil and gas to the Middle East.
The Soviet Union is the third largest economy in the world. Prior to 2008, it was believed that the economy would decline rapidly, due to the reluctance to mimic the Chinese approach. The success and ability to incorporate small elements of a Chinese-Style Economy without changing the context of its Marxist-Leninist approach and formally mimicking the Chinese economy, impressed Critics, leading to newfound support for Communism, especially in Third World Countries.
The Soviet Union holds a seat on the United Nations Security Council and is an active member of the UN. It pushed for the independence of the Kurdish regions in the late 2000s and frequently challenged Washington on disputes and ideology. Since the Cold War's end, Russia has had to sustain its population as well as that of the remaining Satellite States.
The Soviets fought in three wars over the course of its modern history. The Baltic Wars, The War on Terror and The War in Georgia.
The Soviets hold military installations in Serbia, Albania and Syria.