The Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics (Russian: Союз Советских Cуверенных Республик,Soyuz Sovyetskikh Suvyeryennykh Ryespublik), known colloquially as the Soviet Union (Советский Союз, Sovyetskiy Soyuz), and abbreviated as the USSR (СССР, SSSR); is a country situated in northern Eurasia. A federation comprised of sovereign republics, the USSR is the largest nation in area and one of the two global superpowers (along with the United States).
The Soviet Union shares borders with Armenia, China, Georgia, Iran, Korea, Mongolia and Turkey to the south, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania to the west, and shares maritime borders with the U.S. State of Alaska across the Bering Strait.
The Soviet Union came into existence on December 28, 1922, when delegates from the Russian SFSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR approved the Treaty of Creation of the USSR, and the Declaration of the Creation of the USSR, forming the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Prior to the 1990's, the Soviet Union was a single-party state with the Communist Party serving as the sole party of the country. Following former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev's reform policies of Glasnost and Perestroika, the Soviet Union was reformed into a federation of sovereign republics.
There are currently three major political parties in the Soviet Union, the Communist Party (center-left to left-wing), the Democratic Party (right-wing), and the Republican Party (centrist to center-left).
The current President of the Soviet Union is Grigory Yavlinsky of the Unionist Party, who has served since 2007 and was reelected in 2012. Because of the Soviet Constitution, President Yavlinsky will be barred from seeking a third term in 2017.