The Union of Socialist Sovereign Republics, often called the Socialist Union, the U.S.S.R., or Russia, is one of the two major superpowers of the human civilization. The Socialist Union is a major power broker in Terran geopolitics as well as a major contributor of human expansion throughout space.
Since its inception, the Socialist Union has been a major military power in both Eastern Europe and the world. The nation has been in a period of constant expansion. The Socialist Union is a major contributor to the Federation of Terra in both economic aid and military upkeep.
Establishment and the Revolution
The Soviet Union was established during the Russian Revolution in which the Russian monarchy was deposed and the Russian republic that replaced it was defeated after years of civil war. Following the defeat of the capitalist republican Whites, the Reds/Bolsheviks took control over the leadership of Vladimir Lenin.
The Lenin period saw extensive conflict throughout eastern Europe. With no major success in any other European countries, the Soviets had to be content with former Russian land east of the Polish border. This period also saw the new intellectual idea called Leninism, something that the Socialist Union follows to this day.
The death of Lenin resulted in a power struggle between Lenin's seconds Trotsky and Stalin. Stalin eventually won, ousting Trotsky and initiating a purge of communist members that removed significant threats to Stalin's power. Stalin began a new ideology called Stalinism, that effectively restored the economic and industrial reputation of the Soviet Union.
Second World War
Stalin made a pact with Nazi German leader Adolf Hitler to split Eastern Europe between them. Soviet forces annexed half of Poland absorbed the three Baltic republics of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. An attempted annexation of Finland resulted in war, and after months of Pyrrhic warfare the Soviets signed a truce.
After the disastrous Winter War with Finland, Stalin abandoned a interventionist policy. When Hitler and Nazi Germany betrayed the non-aggression pact that the two nations had signed. World War Two had reached the Soviet Union.
After four years of brutal war, the Soviet Union defeated Germany on the Eastern Front, taking East Prussia from Germany and establishing a line of puppet states across Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union became a nuclear power and a superpower at this point, vying for global influence with the United States.
The Soviet Union emerged as a superpower at the conclusion of the war, and Soviet influence stretched from Berlin to Ulaanbatar. The Soviet Union became a nuclear power shortly afterwards, and set about expanding its influence around the world.
Stalin died in 1953, and a short power struggle saw Nikita Khrushchev rise to power. He set about policies such as de-Stalinization as well as increasing the overall level of freedom in the Soviet Union. Most of his efforts were undone by Leonid Brezhnev, who succeeded him in a coup in 1964
By the 1960s the Soviet Union's influence was even greater, as China had become red and an outpost in the Americas was established in Cuba. This was the high point in Soviet power, but the Soviets lost important credibility when they backed out of Cuba at the demand of the United States.
In 1967 the Soviet military launched a coup against the increasingly unpopular premier Leonid Brezhnev, who was becoming increasingly corrupt and had begun to form a personality cult around himself. The Red Army forced the government from Moscow and replaced Brezhnev with the popular retired Marshall Georgy Zhukov. Brezhnev fled to the Ukraine, but the military caught him and placed him under permanent house arrest. Brezhnev was pardoned and released in 1975.
In 1969, the Prague Spring erupted in Czechoslovakia. This was part of a drive by the Czechoslovakian government to liberalize the freedoms of the people to a degree, and also to grant them better economic freedoms. Although the Soviet military was mobilized to stop this, Zhukov declined to intervene, and similar "Springs" spread to other Warsaw Pact states, although such protests in Albania, Yugoslavia, and Romania were brutally put down.
As a result of these new freedoms, the Warsaw Pact became increasingly unstable. In order to preserve the cohesion of communist Eastern Europe as well as better organize communist actions worldwide, the Communist Nations Alliance Treaty. Romania refused to join what it saw as a Soviet capitalist scheme to ruin the values of communism. Other communist nations like Albania, Yugoslavia, China, or North Korea likewise refused to join, but North Vietnam and South Yemen joined.
Following the coup that ousted Brezhnev, the Soviet military and government both became more expansionist with regards to both Soviet influence and authority. The Soviet Union restarted annexation negotiations with both Mongolia and Bulgaria. Both were annexed in 1968 at the behest of the respective governments. While at first this seemed like a valuable investment, it would provide the Soviet Union with several problems.
The annexation of Mongolia was objected to by both the PRC and the ROC, both of whom who claimed Mongolia as part of its sovereign territory. Although there was little the ROC could do militarily, it convinced its Western allies that the recent Soviet annexations were part of increased Soviet aggression. As such, the United States and the rest of NATO built up their militaries further. This military buildup was crucial for the next war to come.
The PRC, however, responded with excessive military force, claiming Mongolia was its own as well and declaring a war between Leninism and Maoism. PRC military units swept through Mongolia, pushing aside the Mongolian People's Army, which had yet to be integrated into the Red Army. The Soviet Union responded with war, and army groups in Russia and Central Asia invaded Xinjiang, Mongolia, and Inner Manchuria.
The war largely stalemated before the Promethean Invasion of Terra, but the Soviet Union had gained an advantage, driving the Chinese from Ulaanbaatar and Outer Mongolia and driving into Inner Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, and Xinjiang, culminating in the capture of Ürümqi. Ulaanbaatar was devastated by the war, and a new Mongolian capital needed to be created away from the front lines. The site of the ancient capital of Karakorum was chosen to appeal to Mongolians as well as provide a more central capital for the new Mongolian Soviet Socialist Republic, although the construction was thought by some Soviet officials as a symbol of royalist oppression and overt Mongolian nationalism.
In 1969 Terra was invaded by the Promethean Empire. Within days most nations were invaded and began fighting wars of survival to drive out the alien invaders. The Soviet Union, as one of the larger and more powerful nations on Terra, was invaded with overwhelming force. Moscow became an ashen war zone, and most major cities followed soon after.
The Soviet government was largely able to escape Moscow, although at the cost of the Soviet Air Force, and flee to fortified bunkers in the Ural Mountains, where they coordinated resistance across Eastern Europe and Asia with CNAT forces. Because of the better military coordination in CNAT, the remainder of the communist nations joined the organization, except for China due to the de jure ongoing war which had ended de facto, and North Korea, which held to its die-hard isolationism. Despite this, both nations did cooperate with Soviet forces in fighting back against the Prometheans.
The first major victory for CNAT forces, or human forces overall, was the Battle of Aden. Soviet, South Yemeni, and allied alien squads succeeded in bringing down a Promethean frigate and evicting the Prometheans from the city. The victory was a major moral boost for human forces worldwide. South Yemen was largely stabilized by the event and its capital of Aden became a major center for refugees from North Yemen and the countryside.
Soviet forces in East Asia were the most ready to fight back against the aliens due to the ongoing war with the PRC. Despite this, Soviet forces lost Vladivostok within hours. Karakorum, Ürümqi, and Ulaanbaatar became major military staging grounds as the Promethean forces concentrated their forces further south. During this time Soviet forces regrouped and offered valuable training and weapons to Chinese insurgents.
In late 1969, Soviet forces tried to force the Prometheans out of Vladivostok. Massing thousands of troops and hundreds of tanks and aircraft, the Soviets began their attack with VX nerve agent rockets. The battle ended in a major disaster, as few Prometheans occupying the city were killed, but most of the enslaved population suffocated. As a result, the Soviets retreated in disgrace.
In Moscow, the battle turned most of the city into a complex of broken buildings and a choking cloud of ash and dust. Despite the assistance of several alien strike teams, the battle cost the CNAT forces hundreds of tanks and thousands of troops and civilians. Despite the considerable forces lost, the humans fought on. By mid-December, the battle had turned as thousands of alien reinforcements dropped into the city and steadily drove the Prometheans out of the city.
By 1970, the Prometheans were in retreat on all fronts in the face of overwhelming alien force. The final major battle for the CNAT forces was Belgrade, were Promethean forces had hunkered down and enslaved the population. CNAT and alien forces moved in, and after a day long space bombardment, most Prometheans either surrendered or were killed when the forces stormed the city.
Return of the Empire
Despite being devastated in the war, the Soviet Union emerged even stronger soon after the war. The alien races had brought a vast amount of technology to Terra to aid in reconstruction efforts. Millions died in the war, further offsetting the gender ratio of the Soviet Union, already skewed from the Second World War. Thousands of soldiers and civilians were affected by radioactive dust and ash created from urban warfare.