The Soviet Union was established after the Second Russian Revolution in 1936, when it overthrew the Russian Republic. A provisional government was set up once President Noe Zhordania was removed and the whole of Russia was officially renamed The Russian Social Soviet Federal Republic. With Joseph Stalin at its head, Russia was divided into 15 "Soviet Socialist Republics" (SSRs); Russia, Belorussia (Semi-Autonomous), Ukraine (Defunct), Estonia and Latvia (Livonia), Lithuania (Defunct), Finland, Kazakhstan (Defunct), Caucasia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova (To Romania), and Tajikistan.
By the time of Stalin's death, the Union was on the brink of falling back into revolution. Inspired by the livelihood of republican governments in the west, such as Prussia and Italy, anti-Stalinists assassinated the Union's new Secretary General; Georgy Malenkov on the 24th of March in 1953. The self-proclaimed President and leader of the Soviet Republican party, Anton Likhachyov was put into power and served until 1960, when he was overthrown and assassinated by Stalinist counterrevolutionaries, and the Union had its Leninist party re-installed.
The Russian SSR is the largest republic in the Soviet Union, spreading all the way from far eastern Europe to the Kamchatka Peninsula. Russia is also the base of federal operations for the whole of the USSR, as well as Secretary General Demitri Yakimov's home nation. It contains the semi-autonomous republics of Belarus and Tuva.
Ukraine bordered Russia to the south, and was the largest republic on the "western front" of the Soviet Union. An acquisition after the Great War expanded its largely unchanged borders with encroachment into the former Autonomous Kingdom of Slovakia. Ukraine was a complex mix of ethnicities and languages, and is an area of high racial tensions. The republic is now fully independent, declaring its statehood on March third, 2017.
Spanning the length of the Caucasus Mountains (From Mt. Elbrus to the Caspian Sea), Caucasia contains the areas of only Azerbaijan and Armenia, having lost Georgia in the Turkic-Soviet War. The unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic is contained within Azerbaijan, and looks to gain full independence in the near future.
Finland is located directly northwest of the Russian SSR, and is the most sparsely inhabited. Taken from Sweden in 1809, and has remained part of the nation ever since, only losing land back to Sweden during the Turkic-Soviet War, in which Sweden sided with the Ottoman Confederacy.
After the days of the Russian Empire, Kazakhstan gained an extended period of autonomy as its own republic, being the second largest nation created from the fall of Russia. Afterwards, the region became a great source of resources, especially minerals and precious metals. Like Ukraine, the urban regions of Kazakhstan were a center for rebellion and challenging of local authority. The People's Democratic Front, a republican resistance army, is based in Kazakhstan, and led the anti-Soviet forces in the two year long "Soviet Crisis," ending in Kazakhstan's independence.
Formerly Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, Turkestan encompasses most of central Asia, and is located directly south of Kazakhstan. This area is often seen as the Soviet "gate to the middle-east"
Hokkaidai was obtained by Russia after the second Russo-Japanese war, and takes up the northern half of the island of Hokkaido. The republic is populated mainly by ethnic Japanese, and experienced an extremely large migration of communist Japanese after their home nation began a purge of any people or ideas that related in any way to Marxism or Stalinism.
Establishment and Growth (1936-1953)
The Soviet Union was established in October of 1936, after revolutionaries under the Red Flag caused a civil war and overthrew the Imperial Russian Government, deposing Czar Nicholas II. Several experimental governmental states were implemented for short periods of time, most notably the Russian Republic; a nation in which a king ruled ceremoniously with most political affairs handled by a parliament. This government lasted only two hours in affect, making it the shortest lived state in history.
The soviet union was unable to keep control of some territories, such as Ukraine, Slovakia, Georgia and Finland after the establishment of a communist state in Russia. The majority of these chose to return to Soviet Control after new communist governments were established, but Finland was retaken after a war with Sweden and the Ottoman Confederacy.
Return to Russia as a Republic (1954-1960)
In the summer of 1954, a large network of anti-Stalin organisations that had previously been forced to remain in hiding began working together in order to remove the new Secretary General, Georgy Malenkov, from power. Malenkov was assassinated by a republican group that was often seen as the least popular among those that worked against Stalin, with Anton Likhachyov at its head.
Likhachyov used military intimidation and a heavy distribution of propaganda in order to keep himself in power once he was proclaimed president. He put in place a dictatorship similar to Stalin's, wherein private industries were allowed to be regrown and to conduct trade with nations that were once enemies of the Soviet Union. The Communist party of Russia experienced a surge in growth during Likhachyov's rule, and he was soon assassinated during a trip to Ukraine in 1965 by Neo-Stalinist insurgents, leading to a coup that reinstated the Soviet Union.
Soviet Incursion and Cold War (1960-1992)
The Soviet Union began to expand aggressively after its restoration in 1961, invading several countries in the newly formed European Union, which had been left weak after the ten year long American War. Eastern Europe was forced to surrender to the massive Soviet War Machine, creating the WTO, or Warsaw Treaty Organisation, an opposing force to NATO. The bloc expanded from Communist Indochina in South-East Asia to East Prussia, a newly created Soviet puppet state consisting of the Ostprussia and Silesia regions, in Europe.
Tensions grew between NATO and the WTO until several anti-Soviet movements in Eastern Europe caused the WTO to break apart. A majority of the former pro-Soviet states joined both the EU and NATO in order to protect themselves from any future Russian aggression.
Although the Union experienced a stagnation in influence, collapse was averted. The number of SSRs was lowed in order to make administration easier and the number of political parties, although all very similar to the All Union Communist Party (VKP), was allowed to increase.
Modern Era (1993-)
The Soviet Union has experienced a large amount of negative sentiment since the end of the Cold War due to its violations of international law and aggression towards smaller, neighboring nations. From June of 2015 to May of 2016, the Union was under investigation by the League of Nations due to allegations of warcrimes and illegal activities. The case was suspended on May 12, but is expected to continue soon. The United States and its allies have put a series of embargoes on the USSR, although the nation manages to avoid the consequences of these actions by trading with nations such as Yugoslavia and Mongolia, which it holds very close relations with.
Gennady Zyuganov, despite his efforts to keep the Union within favorable view in the past five years, has become a target of heavy criticism due to his suppression of libertarian political expressions from both the left and the right. The opening of the USSR's borders in 1994 have assisted in this, although a steady population decrease has been experienced since. Violent revolts are common throughout the nation, especially after Ukraine and Kazakhstan were granted freedom from Soviet control.