Alternate History

Sovereignty, Freedom and Independence

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1786 - The Constitution is never signed, because the idea is just never brought up.

The 1790s

The Hamilton Presidential Reforms

In 1791, the Hamilton Presidential Reforms are written, stating that a president’s term is lengthened from one year to two, and that each president would take office on January 10th. A president could serve no more than two terms. The Hamilton Presidential Reforms are put into effect as soon as Hamilton leaves office on January 10th, 1792.

The Philadelphia Pact

Under John Adams, the Philadelphia Pact is signed in 1796 resolving all of the United States’ border disputes and giving a small part of the Northwest Territory to Pennsylvania.

According to the Northwest Ordinance, the state of Ohio joins the USA in 1799, Huron in 1801, Michigan in 1804 and Mississippi in 1805.

The First American War (1812-1814)

In 1812, Congress declares war on Great Britain and starts the First American War. All the states’ militias are independent of one another and launch random, uncoordinated attacks into Canada. Britain’s forces easily subdue them and on February 5th, 1814, the First American War ends with the Treaty of Bristol (known as the Great Humiliation in America) which gives Massachusetts, Vermont and New Hampshire to British Canada as the province of New England.

The Creation of Independent Florida

Later that year, on April 17th, the Peninsular War ends in Spain and Napoleon’s Spanish supporters flee to Florida. They set up a new government allied with the US and in 1817, join the US as the state of Florida. The victorious, anti-Napoleonic, Spanish government is outraged and in June 1817 sends troops stationed in Tejas across the Mississippi River into Georgia, starting the short-lived Georgian War. The Spanish manage to gain control of western Georgia, which is sparsely populated, and force the USA to sign the “Second Great Humiliation,” or the Treaty of Barcelona, on January 2nd, 1818, forcing Georgia and South Carolina to become a “zone of Spanish influence” and, while staying part of the US, pay heavy tariffs to Spain.

The End of the United States of America

Public opinion about the Washington, DC government has been falling throughout these two small wars, and in late 1818, riots break out in New York, Charleston, and many other major cities. On January 7th, 1819, Mississippi secedes from the United States of America. On January 29th, the president, John C. Calhoun, declares the end of the United States and that each state is now independent.

Most states receive this as joyous news. Over the year, many changes take place. Rhode Island joins Connecticut and North and South Carolina merge. British Canada invades Michigan’s northern peninsula and the Adirondack Mountains area of New York. Virginia annexes Washington, DC, Maryland and Delaware and signs the Treaty of Richmond with Carolina and Georgia, creating the Southern Alliance. Spain invades southern Florida. Connecticut annexes Long Island.

The Creation of the American Alliance

On December 1st, 1819, delegates from each state meet in Washington for a discussion about whether to reform the United States, as an even looser confederation. Only Florida, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Michigan and Huron agree. These states decide to create a very loose alliance, the American Alliance.

The Alliances

In early 1820, Connecticut wishes to join the Southern Alliance (but it is not a southern state). So the name of the alliance is changed to the Confederation Alliance. Pennsylvania and Mississippi soon follow.

The Alliances

Confederation Alliance American Alliance







New Jersey

New York




Meanwhile, New Spain is prospering and many large cities are being built. Los Angeles, San Francisco and San Diego in California are shining examples of the Californios’ wealth.

On March 30th, at the urging of abolitionists, Huron, New York and New Jersey outlaw slavery. On June 23rd, the rest of the American Alliance (except Ohio) follows.

The Second American War (1820)

On August 4th, 1820, the Connecticut Army suddenly invades New York, starting the Second American War. Britain and Spain decide to back Connecticut, and Spain pulls out of West Georgia. Britain promises to pull out of New England and the Adirondacks by 1825, but only if they become Confederation states.

Connecticut, British and Spanish troops make good progress, with not much bloodshed. Troops begin to cross the Delaware River from Pennsylvania and New Jersey. On October 2nd, New York and New Jersey agree to surrender, but Connecticut insists that all of the American Alliance surrender. The states refuse, and the Second American War continues.

Spanish troops push north into Florida in October, and British and Confederation troops pummel Huron and Michigan. The infamous Mountain Armies of western Virginia and Carolina cross the Ohio River and loot towns in southern Ohio.

The fighting continues, with individual states of the AA willing to surrender, but none wishing to end the entire alliance. But, sadly, on December 27th, 1820, all the states of the American Alliance sign the Treaty of Richmond. This treaty:

1. Maintains that all states in the American Alliance join the Confederation Alliance

2. Maintains that the governments of each state formerly in the AA be appointed by a special committee

3. Maintains that Georgia will receive West Georgia from Spain

4. Maintains that Spain will recapture Florida

5. Maintains that the provinces of New England and Adirondack leave British Canada and join the Confederation Alliance

6. Maintains that the Canadian provinces of Iowa, Minnesota and Dakota leave British Canada and join the Confederation Alliance, as a gift of thanks from Great Britain

7. Maintains that all the states of the Confederation Alliance, along with Britain and Spain, create the Richmond Alliance

A Strong Central Government

In 1821, the Confederation Alliance is drastically reformed to create a strong central government. Some states who do not want a strong central government can become territories, and have a lot more autonomy. Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, New England, Adirondack, and Michigan decide to do so.

Prime Minister

The office of prime minister is established. A prime minister’s term is four years and the maximum number of terms is two. The prime minister is elected by the parliament, which is made up of representatives from each state, appointed by the state’s governor. His term begins and ends on August 1st. John C. Calhoun. A parliament is also created, known as the Confederation Parliament.


For several decades, peace prevails in North America. In 1830, the Mormon religion is founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. The Mormons, hoping to evade persecution, move to northern Mississippi, which is sparsely populated, and found Superior Lake City.

Conflicts in Central America & the Caribbean

In 1838, France invades New Spain and, allying itself with the native Aztec and Maya inhabitants of the region, takes over New Spain from its northern border to the Yucatan. At least in theory. Because the Californios, resisting French rule, live de facto under Spain’s control. The French name their spoils Azteque.

In 1844, eastern Hispaniola (Santo Domingo) tries to win its independence from Haiti but fails.

The Third American War

Tension slowly mounts between the northern and southern states of the CA. Franklin Pierce attempts to hold the Confederation Alliance together, but in vain. In 1847 New England Territory outlaws slavery. The Confederation Parliament protests, saying that the territory is not allowed to do so. Tempers begin to boil and on December 30th, 1847, John Winchester Dana, the governor of New England Territory, declares himself the president of the Republic of New England. Immediately the Confederation Alliance and British Canada invade the fledgling nation.

On January 5th, 1848, Adirondack Territory, Michigan and Huron secede from the Confederation Alliance. British troops land at Michigan’s upper peninsula.

Thus begins the Third American War.

Britain and the Confederation Alliance appear to be winning many of the first battles. But then, the rebels in the north start making more progress. Under President John Winchester Dana, they form the Republic of America, with the capital at Portsmouth. Dana declares that he will be the acting president until July, when elections will be held. New England Territory becomes the states of Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and North Massachusetts. Adirondack Territory becomes the states of Champlain and Adirondack.

Many of the Mormons ally with the Republic. They want to join the rebels, but they are represented by few politicians in Mississippi’s state capital at Eau Claire. Finally, in early March of 1848, they declare the state of Chequamegon. Chequamegon joins the Republic.

The battles continue. Confederation general Robert E. Lee’s Confederation troops score a victory at the Battle of Springfield, but neither side makes much progress.

Then, on May 29th, joint Spanish, Californio, British and Confederation Alliance forces land at Boston. Within days, they secure the city.

Intimidated, Dana seeks a peace treaty, though not unconditional surrender. Pierce (unwisely, in the opinion of many) refuses his offer.

The July elections draw closer in the Republic. Western Pennsylvania and western New York secede from the Confederation and join the Republic as the state of Erie. The territories of Iowa, Minnesota and Dakota secede as well, and enter as Western Territory.

Candidates in the Republic presidential election of 1848
John Winchester Dana, North Massachusetts

Hannibal Hamlin, North Massachusetts

Joseph Smith, Jr., Chequamegon

Martin van Buren, New York (representing Erie)

Charles Francis Adams, Sr., Massachusetts

Millard Fillmore, Erie

The winner of the election is Martin van Buren, a wealthy Dutchman from New York who moved to Erie when it seceded. Taking the helm on August 1st, he immediately seeks peace talks with Franklin Pierce, as Dana did, but he is again rebuffed.

Then, a soldier from the Republican Army named William Scott Parker travels to Washington, Virginia, and assassinates Pierce with a bullet to the brain. This significantly lowers the morale of Confederation troops (allowing for good Republican progress in the Mohawk River valley) and brings to power Pierce’s second minister, an Illinois politician named Abraham Lincoln.

Lincoln’s top priority is not preserving slavery, but keeping the Confederation together. He agrees to van Buren’s request for peace talks and calls for an end to fighting while the agreements are being decided. He offers to van Buren the prospect of rejoining the Confederation Alliance, and (to appeal to Mormons) to turn Chequamegon into an autonomous region. He also states that slavery would be illegal in any states who have any part of them above the Mason-Dixon line, except Virginia. Van Buren is very happy, but many southerners in the Confederation are not. Georgia considers seceding, but votes against it (to Lincoln’s relief). So, on September 2nd, the Treaty of Boston is signed, ending the short-lived Republic of America and the Third American War.

Lincoln outlines his plans for Reconstruction, or the re-absorption of the Republic into the Confederation Alliance. However, ending his short one-month prime ministership, on September 21st, while riding a train from Richmond, VA, to Washington, VA, he is assassinated by a radical pro-slavery gunman from Carolina named Henry Georgetown.

His second minister, Schuyler Colfax, becomes prime minister. Though he supports Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction, many take advantage of his weak position, and a radical Reconstruction begins.

Many politicians from the Republic are put on trial for war crimes. Some, including Martin van Buren, are put in prison. John Winchester Dana is hanged.

Prime Minister Colfax proposes renaming the Confederation Alliance the Confederation of America, but this is not passed until Benjamin Huger becomes prime minister.

Unrest in Quebec

Also during Huger’s term, unrest begins in Quebec, Canada. After the Third American War, Britain, to help pay the debt, raised taxes in Canada. The people of Quebec begin to protest. They organize around L'Armée pour l'Indépendance du Québec (AIQ), which organizes protests and riots. After a few years of unrest, the conflict slowly turns more bloody, with full-scale battles. The Confederation of America waists no time supporting Britains and sends some troops to help. Though the British have more manpower, the AIQ employs many good tactics and manages to chase the British out of most of the St. Lawrence River valley by 1857.

In 1857, the Treaty of Montréal creates the independent Republic of Quebec.

The California Wars

In 1859, gold is discovered in California, which feeds France’s hunger for the region, still in control of Californio militants. France invades in 1862, starting the First California War, but its poorly trained army does not know the terrain well and is pushed back. It tries again in 1865, this time succeeding in winning the Second California War and conquering the Californios (many of whom move to Spanish Florida).

Unfortunately for them, in 1866 the Floridian Revolution (opposed by the Confederation of America) breaks Spain’s grip on the peninsula and creates los Estados Unidos de Florida (EUF).

Also in 1866, the CA and Great Britain jointly lay the Transatlantic Cable for transmitting Morse Code messages.

The Caribbean Alliance

Two years later, in 1868, Cuba wins its independence from Spain, with help from Florida. Along with Guatemala, Honduras, Venezuela and French Azteque, they form the Caribbean Alliance.

New Orleans is chosen to be the “capital” of the alliance, being its largest city. Though it is in French Azteque, it is a very international city, with British, American, Floridian, Spanish and French citizens. It has a much larger population than in OTL.

In 1870, Austria-Hungary, Prussia, the Ottoman Empire, and the city-state of Milan join the Richmond Alliance.

The Great Peace

The 1870s, 1880s and 1890s, known as the Great Peace, are a time of prosperity throughout the world, fueled by the profits reaped by slaves. Slaves are becoming more and more commonplace throughout the world, with the trade booming. The New Year of 1900 is kicked off by the first World’s Fair, an event hosted by the Richmond Alliance.

Four years later, in 1904, the Olympics are founded. Over the early 20th century, the two events would vie for attention, known as the “Festival War.”

Meanwhile, in Russia, Vladimir Lenin is imprisoned by the Czar for writing the “Communist Manifesto.” He dies a few years later in Siberia.

The Moscow Pact

Russia is allied with France against the Richmond Alliance. On September 3rd, 1915, the Moscow Pact is signed, bringing Russia, France, Quebec, Brazil, the city-state of Venice, and all the members of the Caribbean Alliance into an agreement. These countries come to be known as the Moscow Pact countries.

The Great War (1915-1916)

But the very next day, September 4th, the Moscow Pact countries must mobilize: Serbian militants have begun an attack upon an Austro-Hungarian fort in the region. Austria-Hungary and its ally, Prussia, have declared war on Serbia. Russia and France pledge to protect the country, invading Prussia and Austria from the east and west. Thus begins the Great War on 1915-1916. French troops make good progress in the west, securing the Netherlands (OTL Benelux), under Prussian control since the failed Belgian rebellion of the 1830s.

Russia, however, does not move that quickly. It manages to take over Galicia, but troops from East Prussia march into Lithuania and establish a puppet state. France and Spain join the war on October 9th. French diplomats convince neutral Sweden (OTL Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark) to join the Moscow Pact. Britain, outraged, lands British navy ships in Oslo harbor and declares the Kingdom of Norway, allied with the Richmond Alliance.

Prussia captures Denmark from Sweden. The Swedish king confides to the Czar that he is considering surrender. The Czar promises to give him Murmansk if he stays in the war. The Swedish monarch reluctantly agrees.

The Confederation of America has, meanwhile, officially been on Britain's side in the war. However, it is not doing much, due largely to the staunchly isolationist policies of Prime Minister Woodrow Wilson. Under pressure from British diplomats, Confederation troops attack New Orleans, in French Azteque. They lose, but the Battle of New Orleans remains one of the bloodiest of the Great War.

British troops from Seattle and Oregon also begin to march south into California, eyeing its plentiful gold reserves (though the French government has been claiming - truthfully - that all the gold is dug up, the British do not believe this). Britain manages to secure a small sliver of northern California, which it immediately awards to Spain with great pomp.

French troops, meanwhile, are not very concerned about California. They are fast approaching Berlin, the capital of Prussia. The reinforcements they encounter over the winter of 1915-1916 are progressively weaker and weaker. Finally, on April 1st, 1916, France marches into Berlin and forces a surrender out of the Prussian king.

The rest of the Richmond Alliance (though suffering a blow in morale) continue fighting. In the surrender accords with Prussia, France secures itself a very generous chunk of the western part of the country, and gives the Netherlands official recognition. Russia grabs a giant piece of Prussia (to France’s annoyance; Russia did not make any progress at all onto Prussian territory, in fact, quite the opposite). It takes Prussia east of the Oder, but it has trouble securing it, due to British-backed Polish rebels looking for their region’s independence.

But then, a Russian spy named Valentin Kelishnikov-Andrievich assassinates Woodrow Wilson. This shocks the world and delivers a stark plunge in morale for the Richmond Alliance. Wilson’s second minister, Thomas R. Marshall, becomes president but resigns. He, in turn, is replaced by James Beauchamp Clark, a prime minister who privately sympathizes with the Moscow Pact countries, opposes slavery, and has a plan for the annexation of British Canada.

Clark pulls all troops out of Europe and French Azteque, citing a “question of alliance.” Alarmed, Britain immediately pulls the Confederation of America out of the Richmond Alliance. Clark joins the Moscow Pact countries.

However, popular opinion is against him. Georgia, Carolina and Virginia secede; Clark moves the capital to Boston. Suddenly the Confederation of America is facing a war much closer to home than expected.

Britain and Spain give Virginia generous reinforcements; while their backs are turned, France swiftly crosses both the Pyrenees and the Channel. Allying itself with until-now neutral Portugal, France reduces Spain to a stump around Seville. In Britain, French troops march toward London.

Excited by French victories, Russian troops pick up their pace in the march toward Vienna.

"One Swift Stroke:" Victory Day, 1916

In one swift stroke, on July 5th, 1916, the victories all happen. France captures London and Seville. Russia captures Vienna. The Confederation captures Washington.

In one swift stroke, the alliance that once ruled the world crumbles.

After the Great War

Once the dust is clear, though, it becomes visible that the Richmond Alliance has not completely crumbled. The British monarchy, retreating to Ireland but keeping Scotland, gets back on its feet as the United Kingdom of Ireland and Scotland. Georgia and Carolina (which has merged with the remnants of southern Virginia) remain. The Confederation of America, now renamed the Union of America, realizes Clark’s dream and conquers British Canada, Quebec an awkward hole in its midst. Australia becomes independent. The north island of New Zealand is given to Denmark; the south, to Russia. All of Britain’s African possessions become French. Pakistan and East Pakistan become independent, though India itself is split between Russia and the Netherlands. Hong Kong is given to Portugal, as is Svalbard (São Bardo). The rest of Norway is returned to Sweden. Spain is split between France and Portugal. Italy is united (France gets Sardinia) and takes Austria proper; the rest of Austria-Hungary goes to Russia. England and Wales become puppet states.

To make sure that the Great War truly is “the war to end all wars” the League of Nations is created, headquartered in Paris. Georgia, Carolina, and the United Kingdom tentatively re-affirm the Richmond Alliance. They pick up the World’s Fair again in the 1920s, but drop it, as it is pointless.

The Great Surge

But for the rest of the world, the late 1910s and early 1920s are a time of economic boom, known as the Great Surge. But not for long. On Monday, December 3rd, 1925, the economy of the Union of America crashes. All over the world, the crash is echoed. Within years, the world goes from a rich economic boom to the Great Depression (1925 - about 1930). THe prime minister at the time, Herbert Hoover, is blamed and impeached. However, the Depression is slowly ended by the Roosevelt administration's New Deal program, among others.

The 1940s

The 1940s pass uneventfully (certainly unlike in OTL) except for the conquest of China by Japan. Japan is condemned (though not attacked) by the League of Nations, which throws it out. Japan joins the Richmond Alliance.

In the 1940s, the winter Olympics start. They happen every four years (so there is an Olympic games every two years).

The 1950s

The 1950s witness the Second Great Surge, another economic boom. People fear a Second Great Depression, but nothing of the sort happens. In 1959, Russia sells Alaska to France.

The 1960s

The 1960s see the term of Prime Minister John F. Kennedy, who is impeached in 1968 on charges of sympathies with the Richmond Alliance, which he vehemently denies. They also see the Eastern Riots, protests in eastern Russia for the independence of several ethnic regions in 1965-1968, violently cracked down upon by Czar Nikita I. His reactions are condemned by the Union of America, which starts a gradual rift between Russia and the rest of the League of Nations.

The 1970s

In 1971, the newly forming radical Islamist groups of the Middle East, allying themselves with the Richmond Alliance, set a bomb in Times Square, New York, that is intercepted before it explodes. This unites the League of Nations against the Islamists.

Also in 1971, the prime minister of the Union of America, Nelson Rockefeller, outlaws slavery. Some people react angrily, but overall the reaction is one of happiness, because the Civil Rights Movement has begun, and slavery is not that common in the Union of America (most African-Americans in the UA are just sold back into Carolina or Georgia illegally, with the government turning a blind eye).

Georgia and Carolina still allow slavery.

The 1980s and 1990s

Tensions between the League of Nations and the Richmond Alliance mount again during the 1980s and 1990s. Some fear war. However, the tensions eventually die down.

The Great African Rebellion

In 1999-2002, rebellions erupt in Africa against French colonization, known as the Great African Rebellion. Most of them are put down forcefully, which Russia condemns, but one, the Moroccan Revolution of 2001-2002, succeeds. Morocco establishes itself as an independent state (virtually universally unrecognized) and joins the Richmond Alliance. However, the French Invasion of 2005 re-conquers Morocco.


In 2008, 2011 and 2012, Islamic terrorists set off bombs in Toronto, Washington and Boston, respectively. The main current issue in European politics is the 2012 Russian economic recession, which is affecting France. The current emperor of France, John XVI, is very unpopular, as his reign, which started in 2011, coincided with the economic depression. Also, the czar of Russia, Vladimir III, is facing harsh criticism from liberal politicians in his country because of his conservative views and his mishandling of the economic crisis.

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