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|President:||Pancho Vilia (1918), Emiliano Zapata (1918-1934)|
|Area:||1 972 550 km² (before American intervention, Belize agreement and annexion of Guatemala)|
|Population:||16 000 000 (1934)|
|Currency:||peso of Southern Mexico|
Southern Mexico (also known as Popular Republic of Mexico or Popular Mexico)- socialist state in Central America, existed from 1918/1919 to 1934
In 1918, Mexican liberals and agrarians, united, with U.S. support, overthrew pro-British dictatorship of Felix Diaz. Agrarian United Front, headed Pancho Vilia and Emiliano Zapata, representing interests of the great mass of land-hungry peasants, tended increasingly influenced by European socialist revolutions to idea of a communist peasant state. As liberals and agrarians convened the Constituent Assembly, a majority of seats received Agrarian Unified Front (as in Mexico was dominated by peasants), which proclaimed Popular Republic of Mexico and announced nationalization of all sectors of economy. Pancho Villa became president of Mexico
Civil war and American intervention
Liberals, head by Alvaro Obregon, interpreted this as seizure of power and revolt. President Vilia was killed. With the support of Americans, the Liberal Party took control of northern Mexico, but in their rear started a guerrilla war. Mexico City several times passed from hand to hand. Government of Popular Republic сould to get help from British (who do not want too strong U.S.) and the socialist countries (arms and volunteers). As a result, front stabilized in vicinity of Mexico City. Parties agreed to a compromise (Belize City Argeement). In territory controlled by Americans, created their puppet, Northern Mexico, and territory administered by Agrarian United Front maintained socialist states, who renamed as Southern Mexico. New president of Southern Mexico became Emiliano Zapata- comrade-in-arms of Vilia
Great Southern Expedition
In 1919, Honduras began uprising against pro-American dictatorship. Army of southern Mexico, passing through Guatemala, came to aid of rebels and Americans did not dare to land troops to help overthrown government. As a result, Honduras became a junior partner of southern Mexico and Guatemala joined to southern Mexico. However, the other Central American countries then became an American protectorate, which closed its markets to southern Mexico. It is the only trading partner in Central America remained British Honduras (Belize)